Life in the Hothouse: How a Living Planet Survives Climate Change, by Melanie Lenart (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2010).

 

Notes to accompany the text of the published book.

 

Introduction

page 2, within a livable range.

This so-called homeostasis aspect of Gaia theory is more controversial than some other aspects of the theory, and even among its supporters the premise can encompass a range of ideas. The idea comes directly from Lovelock’s 1979 book Gaia: A New Way of Looking at Life (Oxford University Press).

 

page 3, comparing the world to a machine.

Abrams, D., 1991. The mechanical and the organic: on the impact of metaphor in science, pp. 66–77 in Schneider, S., and Penelope Boston (eds.), Scientists on Gaia, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.

 

page 4, since the mid-1970s.

Values for Arizona statewide temperatures (1970–2004) were derived from an online tool posted by the Western Regional Climate Center at this Web site: http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/divplot1_form.pl?0202.

The site can be used to obtain data for the 50 states for a variety of seasons and time frames.

 

page 5, Anthony Westerling and colleagues documented.

Westering, A.L., H.G. Hidalgo, D.R. Cayan, and T.W. Swetnam, 2006. Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science 313: 940–943.

 

page 5, when conditions are right.

Lenart, M., June 2006. Hurricane intensity rises with sea surface temps. Southwest Climate Outlook, June 2006. Monthly publications of the University of Arizona Climate Assessment for the Southwest are available through the following link: http://www.climas.arizona.edu/pubs.html

 

page 5, through the early 2000s.

Alaska’s average annual temperature has increased by about 3.5 degrees Fahrenheit in 30 years, while its winter temperatures have increased by 6.3 degrees F, according to the Alaska Climate Research Center, affiliated with the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. See http://climate.gi.alaska.edu/ClimTrends/Change/TempChange.html

 

page 6, which accelerates melting.

Thomas, R., E. Frederick, W. Krabill, S. Manizade, and C. Martin, 2006. Progressive increase in ice loss from Greenland. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L10503 (1–4), doi: 10.1029/2006GL026075. Abdalati, W., W. Krabill, E. Frederick. S. Manizade, C. Martin, J. Sonntag, R. Swift, R. Thomas, W. Wright, and J. Yungel, 2001. Outlet glacier and margin elevation changes: near-coastal thinning of the Greenland ice sheet. Journal of Geophysical Research 106: 33,729–33,741.

 

page 6, the size of Los Angeles for a year.

Kerr, R.A., 2006. A worrying trend of less ice, higher seas. Science 311(5768): 1698–1701.

 

page 6, researcher Anthony Brazel and colleagues show.

Brazel, A., N. Selover, R. Vose, and G. Heisler, 2000. The tale of two climates—Baltimore and Phoenix urban LTER sites, Climate Research 15: 123–135.

 

page 6, Phoenix simmering about 20 degrees warmer than nearby rural areas at night.

Personal communication, Joseph Zhender, Arizona State University. Also see Brazel, A.J., 2003. Future Climate in Central Arizona: Heat and the Role of Urbanization, Consortium for the Study of Rapidly Urbanizing Regions Research, vignette no. 2 (September), available through the ASU Center for Environmental Studies. The 20-degree Fahrenheit nighttime difference refers to Tempe, a municipality within the Phoenix metropolitan area.

 

page 6, big cities similarly act as heat traps.

DeGaetano, A.T., and R.J. Allen, 2002. Trends in Twentieth-Century temperature extremes across the United States, Journal of Climate 15: 3188–3205.

 

page 6, heat-related deaths than do their rural counterparts.

Buechley, R.W., J. Van Bruggen, and L.E. Truppi, 1972. Heat Island = Death Island? Environmental Research 5: 85–92. Clark, J.F., 1972. Some effects of the urban structure on heat mortality. Environmental Research 5: 93–104. Smoyer, K.E., 1998. A comparative analysis of heat waves and associated mortality in St. Louis, Missouri—1980 and 1995. International Journal of Biometeorology 42: 44–50.

 

page 9, nears the end of her life.

Lovelock, J., 2006. The Revenge of Gaia: Why the Earth Is Fighting Back—and How We Can Still Save Humanity, Allen Lane, an imprint of Penguin Books, London (p. 162), 177 pp.

 

page 9, faces no risk from mere humans.

Margulis, L., 1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution, Basic Books, Perseus Books Group, New York, 147 pp.

 

Chapter 1

page 10, threatened by floodwaters, later reports revealed.

Committee on Natural Disasters, 1994. Hurricane Hugo: Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and South Carolina, Natural Disaster Studies, vol. 6, published by the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 276 pp.

 

page 12, he modeled in a 1999 Nature paper.

Emanuel, K., 1999. Thermodynamic control of hurricane intensity. Nature 410: 665–669.

 

page 12, without passing over warm water.

Regarding the scale of different hurricane seasons: data from Christopher Landsea provided to National Geographic for its August 2005 issue (vol. 208 (2): 72–85). Regarding the scale of individual storms, see Michaels, P.J., P.C. Knappenberger, and R.E. Davis, 2006. Sea-surface temperatures and tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin, Geophysical Research Letters 33: L09708, 1–4.

 

page 12, Gulf of Mexico’s 1995 Hurricane Opal.

Shay, L.K., G.J. Goni, and P.G. Black, 2000. Effects of a warm oceanic feature on Hurricane Opal, Monthly Weather Review 128: 1366–1383.

 

page 13, get cold feet if they head north.

Lenart, M., 2004. Forecasters expect below-normal East Pacific hurricane activity despite likely El Niño development this season, Southwest Climate Outlook (August). Publications by the University of Arizona Climate Assessment for the Southwest are available through the following link: http://www.climas.arizona.edu/pubs.html

 

page 13, an intact eye and the extra punch that comes with it.

Aguado, E., and J.E. Burt, 1999. Understanding Weather and Climate, p. 309. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 474 pp.

 

page 13, documented in a 2000 paper.

Bender, M.A., and I. Ginis, 2000. Real-case simulations of hurricane-ocean interaction using a high-resolution coupled model: effects on hurricane intensity. Monthly Weather Review 128: 917–945.

 

page 13, mid-80s in degrees Fahrenheit.

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Web site: http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/products/vis/gallery/hurricanes/katrina

 

page 13, from about 80 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour.

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio animation at http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/stories/hurricanes/

 

page 14, they lingered over an area.

Bender, M.A., I. Ginis, and Y. Kurihara, 1993. Numerical simulations of tropical cyclone–ocean interaction with a high-resolution coupled model. Journal of Geophysical Research 98: 23,245–23,263.

 

page 14, between 1982 and 2001.

Sriver, R., and M. Huber, 2007. Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones. Nature 447: 577–580.

 

page 15, higher than their earlier estimates.

Sriver, R.L., M. Huber, and J. Nusbaumer, 2008. Investigating tropical cyclone–climate feedbacks using the TRMM Microwave Imager and Quick Scatterometer. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9, Q09V11, doi:10.1029/2007GC001842.

 

page 15, Kevin Trenberth and John Fasullo in a 2008 paper.

Trenberth, K.E., and J. Fasullo, 2008. Energy budgets of Atlantic hurricanes and changes from 1970. Geochemistry, Geophysics and Geosystems 9, Q09V08, doi:10.1029/2007GC001847.

 

page 16, some relate to the Cantonese phrase tái fung (great wind).

Kerry Emanuel goes into a more detailed description of the origin and evolution of the words “hurricane” and “typhoon” on pp. 18–21 in his 2005 book Divine Wind: The History and Science of Hurricanes, Oxford University Press.

 

page 17, a more manageable Category 3.

Bennett, S.P., and R. Mojica. 1999. Hurricane Georges preliminary storm report. National Weather Service, Carolina, Puerto Rico. 15 pp.

 

page 18, in the weeks after the storm.

Bennett, S.P., and R. Mojica. 1999. Hurricane Georges preliminary storm report. National Weather Service, Carolina, Puerto Rico. 15 pp. Also see Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report at http://www.cdc.gov/MMWR/preview/mmwrhtml/00055476.htm .

 

page 19, in the New Orleans area alone.

Knabb, R.D., J.R. Rhome, and D.P. Brown, 2005. Tropical Cyclone Report, Hurricane Katrina (p. 12) released by the National Hurricane Center on December 20, 2005.

 

page 19, estimated at $92 billion.

Platt, Rutherford H., 2000. Extreme natural events: some issues for public policy. Discussion paper prepared for presentation at the Extreme Events Workshop, Boulder, Colorado, June 7–9, 2000. The author is a professor of geography and planning law at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Department of Geosciences.

 

page 20, matter most to hurricane dynamics.

Emanuel, K., 1999. Thermodynamic control of hurricane intensity. Nature 410: 665–669. Emanuel, K., C. DesAutels, C. Holloway, and R. Korty, 2004. Environmental control of tropical cyclone intensity. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 61: 843–858.

 

page 20, but they were both scorchers.

NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies announced that 2005 was the warmest recorded on Earth’s surface since modern measurements began in the 1890s. For example, see http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/environment/2005_warmest.html . The NASA measurements include extrapolated estimates for areas not covered by measuring stations. However, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s 2007 report cited other sources considered more authoritative for maintaining 1998 as the hottest year on record through 2006.

 

page 20, with tragic results.

The kinetic energy of wind is a function of the windspeed squared, while the damage the winds can do increases at a faster rate, with the cube of windspeed being a better estimate. Personal communication (2006), Christopher Landsea, science and operations officer, National Hurricane Center, Miami, Florida.

 

page 20, destructive force of Dennis’s winds.

Knabb, R.D., J.R. Rhome, and D.P. Brown, 2005. Tropical Cyclone Report, Hurricane Katrina, released by the National Hurricane Center on December 20, 2005. P. 8 notes gust reported by Pearl River County Emergency Operations Center.

 

page 21, qualified for Category 3 status.

The kinetic energy of wind is a function of the windspeed squared, while the damage the winds can do increases at a faster rate, with the cube of windspeed being a better estimate. Personal communication (2006), Christopher Landsea, science and operations officer, National Hurricane Center, Miami, Florida.

 

page 21, estimated $100 billion in damages.

Knabb, R.D., J.R. Rhome, and D.P. Brown, 2005. Tropical Cyclone Report, Hurricane Katrina, p. 12, released by National Hurricane Center (December 20).

 

page 21, accompanying storm surges.

Gray, W.M., J.D. Sheaffer, and C.W. Landsea, 1997. Climate trends associated with multidecadal variability of Atlantic hurricane activity, in Diaz, H.F., and R.S. Pulwarty (eds.), Hurricanes: Climate and Socioeconomic Impacts, Springer, Berlin, pp. 15–54. The authors also refer readers to Landsea, C.W., 1991, West African monsoonal rainfall and intense hurricane associations. Dept. of Atmospheric Science Paper No. 484, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, p. 280.

 

page 21, died in floods.

Cosgrove, Peter, 2005. “The economy: How bad a blow,” p. 48 of National Geographic magazine special edition, Katrina: Why it became a man-made disaster; Where it could happen again.

 

page 21, mainly in the Dominican Republic and Haiti.

Bennett, S.P., and R. Mojica. 1999. Hurricane Georges preliminary storm report. National Weather Service, Carolina, Puerto Rico. 15 pp.

 

page 21, over the past few decades.

Knabb, R.D., J.R. Rhome, and D.P. Brown, 2005. Tropical Cyclone Report, Hurricane Katrina, p. 11, released by National Hurricane Center (December 20).

 

page 22, using satellite imagery.

Cerveny, R.S., and L.E. Newman, 2000. Climatological relationships between tropical cyclones and rainfall. Monthly Weather Review 128: 3329–3336 (September). Tropical cyclones include hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones, as well as tropical cyclones with winds below the 74-mile-an-hour threshold for a name-worthy storm.

 

page 22, warming of tropical oceans.

Knutson, T.R., and R.E. Tuleya, 2004. Impact of a CO2–induced warming on simulated hurricane intensity and precipitation: sensitivity to the choice of climate model and convective parameterization. Journal of Climate 17(18): 3477–3495. (September 15)

 

page 22, the volatility of the system increases.

Robert Corell made this comment during a keynote talk at the December 2006 conference Tribal Lands and Climate, held in Yuma, Arizona.

 

page 22, colleagues reported in 2005.

Webster, P.J., G.J. Holland, J.A. Curry, and H.R. Chang, 2005. Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration and intensity in a warming environment. Science 309(5742): 1844–1846. (September). Also see Hoyos, C.D., P.A. Agudelo, P.J. Webster, and J.A. Curry, 2006. Deconvolution of the factors contributing to the increase in global hurricane intensity. Science 312: 94–97 (April 7).

 

page 22, included in the analysis.

Sriver, R., and M. Huber, 2006. Low-frequency variability in globally integrated tropical cyclone power dissipation. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L11705.

 

page 23, since about the mid-1970s.

Emanuel, K., 2005 (August 4). Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature 436: 686–688.

 

page 23, article written with colleagues.

Emanuel, K., R. Sundararajan, and J. Williams, 2008. Hurricanes and global warming: results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89(3): 347–367.

 

page 23, a decade at a time.

Mann, M.E., and K.E. Emanuel, 2006. Atlantic hurricane trends linked to climate change. Eos: Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 87(24): 233–244 (13 June).

 

page 24, natural clime variability.

Lenart, M., 2006. Hurricane intensity rises with sea surface temps. Southwest Climate Outlook, June. Monthly publication by the University of Arizona Climate Assessment for the Southwest available through the following link: http://www.climas.arizona.edu/forecasts/articles/hurricanes_june2006.pdf

 

page 24, burning gas, coal, oil, and forests.

Levitus, S., J.I. Antonov, T.B. Boyer, and C. Stephens, 2000. Warming of the world ocean. Science 287: 2225–2228. Barnett, T.P., D.W. Pierce, K.M. AchutaRao, P.J. Gleckler, B.D. Santer, J.M. Gregory, and W.M. Washington, 2005. Penetration of human-induced warming in the world’s oceans. Science 309: 284–287.

 

page 24, 2007 book Storm World.

Mooney, C., 2007. Storm World: Hurricanes, Politics and the Battle over Global Warming, Harcourt Inc., Orlando, Florida. 392 pp.

 

page 24, recipe for hurricane formation.

Gray, W.M., 1979. Hurricanes: their formation, structure and likely role in the tropical circulation, pp. 155–218 in Meteorology over the Tropical Oceans, James Glaisher House, Bracknell, Eng., Royal Meteorological Society.

 

page 24, wind shear in a 2001 paper.

Goldenberg, S.B., C.W. Landsea, A.M. Mestas-Nuñez, and W.M. Gray, 2001. The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: causes and implications. Science 293 (20 July): 474–478.

 

page 25, coverage of the tropical Atlantic.

Wang, C., S.-K. Lee, and D.B. Enfield, 2008. Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9(5): 1–17. doi:10.1029/2007/GC001809.

 

page 27, including the current climate.

Hobgood, J.S., and R.S. Cerveny, 1988. Ice-age hurricanes and tropical storms. Nature 333: 243–245.

 

page 27, modern-day Chicago?

Wing, S.L., and D.R. Greenwood, 1993. Fossils and fossil climate: the case for equable continental interiors in the Eocene. Transactions of the Royal Society (London) 341: 243–252.

 

page 27, at these high altitudes.

Huber, M., and L. Sloan, 2000. Climatic responses to tropical sea surface temperature changes on a “greenhouse” Earth. Paleoceanography 15: 443–450.

 

page 27, late Cretaceous and Eocene hothouses.

Pearson, P.N., P.W. Ditchfield, J. Singano, K.G. Harcourt-Brown, C.J. Nicholas, R.K. Olsson, N.J. Shackleton, and M.A. Hall, 2001. Warm tropical sea surface temperatures in the Late Cretaceous and Eocene epochs. Nature 413: 481–487.

 

page 28, throughout the Eocene.

Pearson, P.N., B.E. van Dongen, C.J. Nicholas, R.D. Pancost, S. Schouten, J.M. Singano, and B.W. Wade, 2007. Stable warm tropical climate through the Eocene epoch, Geology 35(3): 211–214.

 

p. 28, the Cretaceous hothouse.

Bice, K.A., D. Birgel, P.A. Meyers, K.A. Dahl, K.U. Hinrichs, and R.D. Norris, 2006. A multiple proxy and model study of Cretaceous upper ocean temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Paleoceanography 21: PA2002, 1–17.

 

page 28, and other intense storms.

Ito, M., A. Ishigaki, T. Nishikawa, and T. Saito, 2001. Temporal variation in the wavelength of hummocky cross-stratification: implications for storm intensity through Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Geology 29: 87–89.

 

page 30, northeastern U.S. continental shelf.

Davis, A., and X.H. Yan, 2004. Hurricane forcing on chlorophyll-a concentration off the northeast coast of the U.S. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L17304. The authors compared “before” and “after” satellite images of continental shelf waters for seven hurricanes traveling along the northeast U.S. coast between 1998 and 2003. Another research team reported similar findings in their study of 13 hurricanes during the years 1998 through 2001: Babin, S.M., J.A. Carton, T.D. Dickey, and J.D. Wiggert, 2004. Satellite evidence of hurricane-induced phytoplankton blooms in an oceanic desert. Journal of Geophysical Research 109: C03043.

 

page 31, from the air above.

Matthews, B.J.H., 1999. The rate of air-sea CO2 exchange: chemical enhancement and catalysis by marine microalgae. Ph.D. dissertation, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich.

 

page 31, oxygen-starved fish.

For instance, see the following paper: Paerl, H.W., J.D. Bales, L.W. Ausley, C.P. Buzzelli, L.B. Crowder, L.A. Eby, J.M. Fear, M. Go, B.L. Peieris, T.L. Richardson, and J.S. Ramus, 2001. Ecosystem impacts of three sequential hurricanes (Dennis, Floyd, and Irene) on the United States’ largest lagoonal estuary, Pamlico Sound, NC. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98(10): 5655–5660.

 

page 31, for two subsequent years.

Gupta, A., 2000. Hurricane floods as extreme geomorphic events, in The Hydrology-Geomorphology Interface: Rainfall, Floods, Sedimentation, Land Use, Proceedings of the Jerusalem Conference, May 1999, IAHS Publ. no. 261: 215–228, citing Thomas, H., 1991. Water quality analysis for the period 1988–1990; UNDP, UNEP, and Government of Jamaica project—Environmental management of the Hope River Watershed. JAM/87/008–009 UNDP, unpublished report. University of the West Indies, Mona.

 

page 32, New York Times story.

New York Times, September 7, 2005.

 

page 32, Labor Day in 1935.

Kang, W.J., and J.H. Trefry, 2003. Retrospective analysis of the impacts of major hurricanes on sediments in the lower Everglades and Florida Bay. Environmental Geology 44: 771–780.

 

page 33, before they sink.

Maser, C., and J.R. Sedell, 1994. From the Forest to the Sea: The Ecology of Wood in Streams, Rivers, Estuaries, and Oceans, St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida, p. 200.

 

page 33, director Ariel Lugo.

Lugo, Ariel E., 2000. Effects and outcomes of Caribbean hurricanes in a climate change scenario. The Science of the Total Environment 262: 243–251.

 

page 34, in the scientific literature.

See Biotropica 23(4A), December 1991, Special Issue: Ecosystem, Plant, and Animal Responses to Hurricanes in the Caribbean.

 

page 34, Lawrence Walker reported.

Walker, L.R., 1991. Tree damage and recovery from Hurricane Hugo in Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, Biotropica 23(4A): 379–385.

 

page 34, Hurricane Joan in 1988.

Yih, K., D.H. Boucher, J.H. Vandermeer, and N. Zamora, 1991. Recovery of the rain forest of southeastern Nicaragua after destruction by Hurricane Joan. Biotropica 23(2): 106–113. Boucher, D.H., J.H. Vandermeer, K.Yih, and N. Zamora, 1990. Contrasting hurricane damage in tropical rain forest and pine forest. Ecology 71(5): 2022–2024.

 

page 34, depending on species and location.

Lenart, Melanie Therese, 2003. A comparative study of soil disturbance from uprooted trees, and mound and pit decay in Puerto Rico and Colorado. Ph.D. dissertation, School of Natural Resources, University of Arizona. The plots were 500 square meters, roughly 5,400 square feet.

 

page 34, debris in urban areas.

Gray, Kevin, 1998. Debris management: the grind after the storm. BioCycle, November, pp. 38–41. In the Florida Keys, Georges left about 900,000 cubic yards of debris, mostly trees and branches.

 

page 34, in Louisiana alone.

Eaton, Leslie, 2006. After hurricanes come tempests over cleanups. New York Times, February 24, 2006.

 

page 35, both in Florida.

Knabb, R.D., J.R. Rhome, and D.P. Brown, 2005. Tropical Cyclone Report, Hurricane Katrina, released by the National Hurricane Center on December 20, 2005.

 

page 35, Environmental Science Department.

Scatena, F.N., S. Moya, C. Estrada, and J.D. Chinea, 1996. The first five years in the reorganization of aboveground biomass and nutrient use following Hurricane Hugo in the Bisley Experimental Watersheds, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 28 (4a): 424–440.

 

page 35, forests’ overall productivity.

Sanford, R.L., W.J. Parton, D.S. Ojima, and D.J. Lodge, 1991. Hurricane effects on soil organic matter dynamics and forest production in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico: results of simulation modeling. Biotropica 23(4a): 364–372.

 

page 35, lead author Scatena.

Scatena, F.N., and M.C. Larsen, 1991. Physical aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23(4a): 317–323.

 

page 36, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

Collier, M., and R.H. Webb, 2002. Floods, Droughts, and Climate Change, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 96, 153.

                  

page 38, in its own right.

Lovelock, J.E., 1979. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.

 

Chapter 2

page 39, specifically an animal.

Scofield, Bruce, 2004. Gaia: the living Earth—2,500 years of precedents in natural science and philosophy, pp. 151–160 in Schneider, S.H., J.R. Miller, E. Crist, and P.J. Boston (eds.), Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

 

page 40, at a 2006 conference.

Margulis used the term during a brief conversation we had on October 14, 2006, at a conference on Gaia theory. I need to check with her on spelling, as I don’t find it listed or described anywhere.

 

page 40, cool desert nights.

Lovelock, J., 2006. The Revenge of Gaia: Why the Earth Is Fighting Back—and How We Can Still Save Humanity, Allen Lane, an imprint of Penguin Books, London (p. 177).

 

page 40, of interglacial periods.

Siegenthaler, U., T.F. Stocker, E. Monnin, D. Lüthi, J. Schwander, B. Stauffer, D. Raynaud, J.M. Barnola, H. Fischer, V. Masson-Delmotte, and J. Jouzel, 2005. Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the Late Pleistocene. Science 310: 1313–1317 (November 25). See also Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V.Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pepin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard, 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399: 429–436.

 

page 40, between the two states.

Alley, R.B., J. Marotzke, W.D. Nordhaus, J.T. Overpeck, D.M. Peteet, R.A. Pielke Jr., R.T. Pierrehumbert, P.B. Rhines, T.F. Stocker, L.D. Talley, and J.M. Wallace, 2003. Abrupt climate change. Science 299: 2005–2010 (March 28).

 

page 40, and hothouse times.

Emanuel, K., 2002. A simple model of multiple climate regimes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D9): 4077, 1–10.

 

page 41, editing the sun.

Thomas, Lewis. The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher, Viking Press, New York, (p. 145), 153 pp.

 

page 41, from the cell’s nucleus.

Mann, C., 1991. Lynn Margulis: science’s unruly Earth Mother. Science 252: 378–381. (April 19).

 

page 42, alternating as principal author.

Lovelock, J.E., and L. Margulis, 1974. Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: the gaia hypothesis. Tellus 24 (1–2): 2–9. Margulis, L., and J.E. Lovelock, 1974. Biological modulation of the Earth’s atmosphere. Icarus 21: 471–489.

 

page 42, to the wraith of Gaia.”

Lovelock, J.E., 1979. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England (p. 11).

 

page 42, climates of Earth and Mars.

Sagan, C., and G. Mullen, 1972. Earth and Mars: evolution of atmospheres and surface temperatures. Science 177 (4043): 52–56. Also see Sagan, C., 1977. Reducing greenhouses and the temperature history of Earth and Mars. Nature 269: 224–226 (September 15).

 

page 42, worked on the United Kingdom.

Mann, C., 1991. Lynn Margulis: science’s unruly Earth Mother. Science 252: 378–381 (April 19).

 

page 42, as the following passage shows:

Odum, E.P., in collaboration with H.T. Odum, 1959. Fundamentals of Ecology, 2d edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia (pp. vi, 16), 546 pp.

 

page 43, and other predecessors.

For instance, in his essay Reflections on Gaia (pp. 1–6 in the 2004 Scientists Debate Gaia, published by MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts), Lovelock acknowledges A.C. Redfield and G.E. Hutchinson, as well as V.I. Vernadsky.

 

page 43, J.R. Newman put it.

Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.

 

page 43, so the atmosphere changed.

Lenart, M., 1994. Recharting a course for Biosphere 2, p. 38 of The San Juan Star, a daily English-language newspaper published in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Carbon dioxide levels reached as high as 4,000 parts per million within the enclosed structure. Levels would have been even higher, but the concrete was absorbing some of the carbon dioxide, as a team led by oceanographer Wallace Broecker discovered (personal communication described in the article).

 

page 45, ridiculed and ignored it.

Lovelock describes the scientific disdain for his theory in several places, including the revised preface for his 1987 version of Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 157 pp.

 

page 45, prevails across the planet.”

Margulis, L., 1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution, Basic Books, New Yorkpp, (pp. 127–128), 146 pp.

 

page 46, The Tinkerer’s Accomplice

Turner, J.S., 2006. The Tinkerer’s Accomplice: How Design Emerges from Life Itself, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 282 pp. A physiologist, he suggests that termite nests and certain other structures act as an extension of life itself in: Turner, J.S., 2000. The Extended Organism: The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 235 pp.

 

page 46, Ageless Body, Timeless Mind:

Choprak, Deepak, 1993. Ageless Body, Timeless Mind: The Quantum Alternative to Growing Old, Harmony Books (a member of the Crown Publishing Group, Random House), New York (p. 13), 342 pp.

 

page 46, weed out the unfit planet?

Richard Dawkins, the author of the 1976 book The Selfish Gene, has been particularly critical of this perceived shortcoming of Gaia theory.

 

page 47, as did others.

Stephan Harding, a professor at Schumacher College in Devon, was modeling Daisyworld with 23 differently colored species of daisy, as well as herbivores that eat the daisies and carnivores that eat the herbivores. As Lynn Margulis puts it in Symbiotic Planet (p. 127): “What has emerged is the mathematical outline of an overlap between natural selection and global temperature regulation.”

 

page 47, and human components.”

Lovelock, J., 2003. The living Earth. Nature 426: 769–770.

 

page 47, and physical environment.”

Lovelock, J.E., 1979. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England (p. xii), 157 pp.

 

page 47, as a coupled system.

Lovelock, J., 2003. The living Earth. Nature 426: 769–770.

 

page 47, “weak” to “strong” Gaia.

Kirchner, J.W., 1991, The Gaia hypotheses: Are they testable? Are they useful? Pp. 38–46 in Schneider, S.H. and P.J. Boston (eds.), Scientists on Gaia, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

 

page 48, to think about the world.”

Deloria, V., Jr., and D.R. Wildcat, 2001. Power and Place: Indian Education in America, Fulcrum Resources, Golden, Colorado, 168 pp.

 

page 49, to care for the land.”

Cajete, G., 2000. Native Science: Natural Laws of Interdependence, Clear Light Publishers, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 339 pp.

 

page 50, a year by 2000.

Victora, C.G., J. Bryce, O. Fontaine, and R. Monasch, 2000. Reducing deaths from diarrhea through oral rehydration therapy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78(10): 1246–1255.

 

page 50, certain unwanted bacteria.

Eckert, Roger, David Randall, and George Augustine, 1988 (3d edition), Animal Physiology: Mechanisms and Adapations, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (p. 584), 683 pp.

 

page 51, Scientists on Gaia:

Abrams, D., 1991. The mechanical and the organic: on the impact of metaphor in science, pp. 66–77 in Scientists on Gaia, Stephen Schneider and Penelope Boston, eds., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.

 

page 52, DeCicco and colleagues showed.

DeCicco, J., F. Fung, and F. An, 2006. Global Warming on the Road: The Climate Impact of America’s Automobiles. Environmental Defense, Washington, D.C. Report available at http://www.environmentaldefense.org/

 

page 53, about 20 percent.

Houghton, J.T., G.J. Jenkins, and J.J. Ephraums (eds.), 2001. Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Third Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

page 53, from the planet’s atmosphere.

Personal communication, Xubin Zeng, University of Arizona Department of Atmospheric Sciences. Also mentioned in Margulis, L., 1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution, Basic Books, Perseus Books Group, New York, 147 pp.

 

page 53, 11 degrees Fahrenheit.

IPCC, 2007. Summary for Policymakers, in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation; Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L.A. Meyer (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York. Posted at http://www.ipcc.ch/.

 

page 53, 3 and 8 degrees Fahrenheit.

Bader, D.C., C. Covey, W.J. Gutowski, I.M. Held, K.E. Kunkel, R.L. Miller, R.T. Tokmakian, and M.H. Zhang, 2008. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations, Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Washington, D.C., 124 p.

 

page 54, same amount of light.

This is a technique teachers use to illustrate the power of greenhouse gases. The amount of carbon dioxide produced within the flask is indefinite, but the flask concentration certainly exceeds levels projected for this century.

 

page 55, Mishchenko and colleagues.

Mishchenko, M.I., I.V. Geogdzhayev, W.B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B.E. Carlson, A.A. Lacis, L. Liu, and L.D. Travis, 2007. Long-term satellite record reveals likely recent aerosol trend. Science 315: 1543.

 

page 56, in volcanic eruptions.

Mann, M.E., M.A. Cane, S.E. Zebiak, and A. Clement, 2005. Volcanic and solar forcing of the tropical Pacific over the past 1000 years. Journal of Climate 18: 447–456.

 

page 56, with colleagues indicates.

Andreae, M.O., C.D. Jones, and P.M. Cox, 2005. Strong present-day aerosol cooling implies a hot future. Nature 435: 1187–1190. Andreae, M.O., 2007. Atmospheric aerosols versus greenhouse gases in the twenty-first century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 365: 1915–1923.

 

page 57, solar radiation striking it.

Foley, J.A., J.E. Kutzback, M.T. Coe, and S. Levis, 1994. Feedbacks between climate and boreal forests during the Holocene epoch. Nature 271: 52–54.

 

page 58, Werner Eugster found.

Eugster, W., W. Rouse, R. Pielke, J.P. McFadden, D.D. Baldocchi, T. Kittel, F.S. Chapin III, G.E. Liston, P.L. Vidale, E.A. Vaganov, and S. Chambers, 2000. Land-atmosphere energy exchange in Arctic tundra and boreal forest: Available data and feedbacks to climate. Global Change Biology 6: 84–115.

 

page 58, sipped up the ocean.

Ruddiman pp. 280–281, citing Denton, G.H., and T.J. Hughes, 1981. The Last Great Ice Sheets, John Wiley, New York.

 

page 58, land they cover today.

Ruddiman, citing CLIMAP (1981): CLIMAP Project members, 1981. Seasonal Reconstruction of the Earth’s Surface at the Last Glacial Maximum.

 

page 58, the equator, for example.

Bridgman, H.A., and J.E. Oliver, 2006. The Global Climate System: Patterns, Processes and Teleconnections, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 331 pp.

 

page 59, 342 watts per square meter.

Royer, D.L., 2006. CO2-forced climate thresholds during the Phanerozoic. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 5665–5675. Numbers here are based on the same premise he used, that solar luminosity has linearly increased since the Phanerozoic began 540 million years ago from 94.5% of the pre-industrial value of 342 watts per square meter.

 

page 60, at the edge of the Arctic Circle.

Hays, J., J. Imbrie, and N. Shackleton, 1976. Variations in the Earth’s orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages. Science 194: 1121–1132. (December 10].

 

page 60, in the isotopic record.

Ruddiman, 2001. W.F., Earth’s Climate: Past and Future, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (pp. 282), 465 pp.

 

page 61, glaciers advanced and retreated.

Siegenthaler, U., T.F. Stocker, E. Monnin, D. Lüthi, J. Schwander, B. Stauffer, D. Raynaud, J.M. Barnola, H. Fischer, V. Masson-Delmotte, and J. Jouzel, 2005. Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the Late Pleistocene. Science 310: 1313–1317 (November 25). See also Spahni, R., J. Chappellaz, T.F. Stocker, L. Loulergue, G. Hausammann, K. Kawamura, J. Flückiger, J. Schwander, D. Raynaud, V. Masson-Delmotte, and J. Jouzel, 2005. Atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide of the Late Pleistocene from Antarctic ice cores. Science 310: 1317–1321.

 

page 61, for the past 800,000 years.

Jouzel, J., V. Masson-Delmotte, and O. Cattani et al., 2007. Orbital and millennial Antarctic climate variability over the past 800,000 years. Science 317: 793–796. Chappellaz, J., D. Luethi, L. Loulergue et al., 2007. Greenhouse gas concentration records extended back to 800,000 years from the EPICA Dome C Ice Core. Eos Transaction, AGU 88 (52), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract PP31E-01. Loulerge, L., A. Schilt, R. Spahni, V. Masson-Delmotte, T. Blunier, B. Lemieux, J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynauld, T.F. Stocker, and J. Chappellaz, 2008. Orbital and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years. Nature 453: 383–386.

 

page 62, how much snow falls.

Blunier, T., E. Monnin and J.M. Barnola, 2005. Atmospheric data from ice cores: four climatic cycles. Pp. 62–82 in Ehleringer, J.R., M.D. Dearing, and T.E. Cerling (eds.) A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants, Animals and Ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, 530 pp.

 

page 62, by about 5,000 years.

Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V.Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pepin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard, 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399: 429–436.

 

page 62, in a 2000 Science paper.

Shackleton, N.J., 2000. The 100,000-year ice-age cycle identified and found to lag temperature, carbon dioxide and orbital eccentricity. Science 289: 1897–1902.

 

page 63, maybe more—this century.

Overpeck, J.T., B.L. Otto-Bliesner, G.H. Miller, D.R. Muhs, R.B. Alley, and J.T. Kiehl, 2006. Paleoclimatic evidence for future ice-sheet instability and rapid sea-level rise. Science 311: 1747–1750 (March 24). Otto-Bliesner, B.L., S.J. Marshall, J.T. Overpeck, G.H. Miller, and A. Hu, CAPE Last Interglacial Project Members, 2006. Simulating Arctic climate warmth and icefield retreat in the last interglacial. Science 311: 1751–1753 (March 24).

 

page 63, sea level could rise.

Hansen, J.E., 2007. Scientific reticence and sea level rise. Environmental Research Letters 2: 024002, 1–6.

 

page 63, out of the last ice age.

Hansen, J., 2007. Huge sea level rises are coming—Unless we act now. New Scientist Environment, initially published July 25, 2007, by NewScientist.com news service.

 

page 64, in the estimated range).

Miller, K.G., M.A. Kominz, J.V. Browning, J.D. Wright, G.S. Mountain, M.E. Katz, P.J. Sugarman, B.S. Cramer, N. Christie-Blick, and S.F. Pekar, 2005. The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science 310: 1293–1298.

 

page 64, during the Permian.

Royer, D.L., 2006. CO2–forced climate thresholds during the Phanerozoic. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 5665–5675, citing Frakes, L.A., J.E. Francis, and J.I. Syktus, 1992. Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

page 65, “cold snaps.”

Miller, K.G., M.A. Kominz, J.V. Browning, J.D. Wright, G.S. Mountain, M.E. Katz, P.J. Sugarman, B.S. Cramer, N. Christie-Blick, and S.F. Pekar, 2005. The Phanerozoic record of global sea level change. Science 310: 1293–1298.

 

page 65, these researchers note.

Miller, K.G., M.A. Kominz, J.V. Browning, J.D. Wright, G.S. Mountain, M.E. Katz, P.J. Sugarman, B.S. Cramer, N. Christie-Blick, and S.F. Pekar, 2005. The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science 310: 1293–1298.

 

page 65, reptiles to warmer climates.

Markwick, P.J., 1994. “Equability,” continentality, and Tertiary “climate”: The crocodilian perspective. Geology 22: 613–616.

 

page 65, even during its coldest month.

Markwick, P.J., 1994. “Equability,” continentality, and Tertiary “climate”: The crocodilian perspective. Geology 22: 613–616.

 

page 65, 50 degrees latitude.

Trenberth, K.E., P.D. Jones, P. Ambenje, R. Bojariu, D. Easterling, A. Klein Tank, D. Parker, F. Rahimzadeh, J.A. Renwick, M. Rusticucci, B. Soden, and P. Zhai, 2007. Observations: surface and Atmospheric Climate Change. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Susan Solomon, S.D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York (see especially section 3.2), citing Rayner, N.A., et al., 2006. Improved analyses of changes and uncertainties in sea surface temperature in situ since the mid-nineteenth century: The HadSST2 dataset. Journal of Climate 19: 446–469.

 

page 65, exported from the tropics.

Emanuel, K., 2001. Contribution of tropical cyclones to meridional heat transport by the oceans. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres) 106(D14): 14,771–14,781.

 

page 66, poleward from the tropics.

Emanuel, K., 2002. A simple model of multiple climate regimes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D9): 4077, 1–10.

 

page 66, on ocean temperatures.

Sriver, R., and M. Huber, 2007. Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones. Nature 447: 577–580.

 

page 66, and cool the tropics.

Huber, M., and L. Sloan, 2000. Climatic responses to tropical sea surface temperature changes on a “greenhouse” Earth. Paleoceanography 15: 443–450. Sluijs, A., S. Schouten, M. Pagani, M. Woltering, H. Brinkhuis, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.R. Dickens, M. Huber, G.-J. Reichart, R. Stein, J. Matthiessen, L.J. Lourens, N. Pedentchouk, J. Backman, K. Moran and the Expedition 302 Scientists, 2006. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature 441: 610–613.

 

page 66, storms on ocean temperatures.

Sriver, R., and M. Huber, 2007. Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones. Nature 447: 577–580.

 

page 66, Thure Cerling noted in 1989.

Cerling, T.E., 1989. Does the gas content of amber reveal the composition of palaeoatmospheres? Nature 339: 695–696.

 

page 67, vapor and carbon dioxide.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Skelton, P.W. (ed.), The Open University and Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. (p. 213), 360 pp. The authors note that the major gases released by volcanoes amount to 80 percent water, 10 percent carbon dioxide, and smaller amounts of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and other hydrogen compounds.

 

page 67, analysis published in 2006.

Royer, D.L., 2006. CO2–forced climate thresholds during the Phanerozoic, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 5665–5675.

 

page 67, David Pollard indicates.

DeConto, R.M., and D. Pollard, 2003. Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature 421: 245–249. Pollard, D., and R.M. DeConto, 2005. Hysteresis in Cenozoic Antarctica ice-sheet variations, Global Planetary Change 45: 9–21.

 

page 67, (about 5 degrees Fahrenheit).

Royer, D.L., R.A. Berner, and J. Park, 2007. Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past 420 million years. Nature 446: 530–532.

 

page 68, existence at the time.

Zachos, J., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups, 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292: 686–693.

 

page 68, not readily dissolved in water.

Methane has low solubility in sea water so its changes are thought to reflect changes in terrestrial metabolism (at least according to Woodwell et al. 1998, citing Woodwell 1989 in Climatic Change 15: 31–50), and the observation that long-term variations in CH4 and CO2 are similar is one reason terrestrial ecosystems are implicated as a major reason for annual CO2 variability.

 

page 68, in a 2001 Science paper.

Zachos, J., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups, 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292: 686–693.

 

page 69, carbon found in fossil fuels.

Jahren, A.H., N.C. Arens, G. Sarmiento, J. Guerrero, and R. Amundson, 2001. Terrestrial record of methane hydrate dissociation in the Early Cretaceous. Geology 29(2): 159–162.

 

page 69, higher than today’s average.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Skelton, P.W. (ed.), The Open University and Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. (p. 219), 360 pp.

 

page 69, Warm Climates in Earth History.

Thomas, E., J.C. Zachos and T.J. Bralower, 2000. Deep-sea environments on a warm earth: latest Paleocene-early Eocene, pp. 132–160 in Huber, B.T., K.G. MacLeod, and S.L. Wing, Warm Climates in Earth History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

 

page 69, the industrial age began.

To estimate CO2 levels in 2010, the year of this book’s publication, the 2008 value of 387 parts per million was projected to 390 ppm, usually typical annual growth trends.

 

page 69, Kukla and colleagues note.

Kukla, G.J., M.L. Bender, J.-L. de Beaulieu, G. Bond, W.S. Broecker, P. Cleveringa, J.E. Gavin, T.D. Herbert, J. Imbrie, J. Jouzel, L.D. Keigwin, K.-L. Knudsen, J.F. McManus, J. Merkt, D.R. Muhs, and H. Müller, 2002. Last interglacial climates. Quaternary Research 58: 2–13.

 

page 71, moderated the seasonal warming.

Blanford, H.F., 1884. On the connexion of the Himalaya snowfall with dry winds and seasons of drought in India, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 37: 3–22.

 

page 72, left 81 million homeless.

Pielke, R.A., and M.W. Downton, 2000. Precipitation and damaging floods: trends in the United States, 1932–97, Journal of Climate 13: 3625–3637. The authors cite figures from the Red Cross.

 

page 72, the mid-1980s.

Probst, J.L., and Y. Tardy, 1987. Long-range streamflow and world continental runoff fluctuations since the beginning of this century. Journal of Hydrology 94: 289–311.

 

page 73, by a full 20 percent.

Groisman, P.Y., R.W. Knight, T.R. Karl, D.R. Easterling, B. Sun, and J.H. Lawrimore, 2004. Contemporary changes of the hydrological cycle over the contiguous United States: trends derived from in situ observations. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5: 64–85. Here, the “most extreme storms” refers to those in the top 1 percent of the record.

 

page 73, and a growing population.

Pielke, R.A., and M.W. Downton, 2000. Precipitation and damaging floods: trends in the United States, 1932–97, Journal of Climate 13: 3625–3637.

 

page 74, 400 inches of rainfall a year.

Bridgman, H.A., and J.E. Oliver, 2006. The Global Climate System: Patterns, Processes and Teleconnections. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 331 pp. Value (p. 66) converted from 11 meters.

 

page 75, out of a 1909 hurricane.

Gupta, A., 2000. Hurricane floods as extreme geomorphic events, in The Hydrology-Geomorphology Interface: Rainfall, Floods, Sedimentation, Land Use (Proceedings of the Jerusalem Conference, May 1999), IAHS Publ. No. 261: 215–228.

 

page 76, radar of global climate models.

Mitchell, D., D. Ivanova, R. Rabin, T. Brown, and K. Redmond, 2002. Gulf of California sea surface temperatures and the North American monsoon: mechanistic implications from observations. Journal of Climate 15: 2261–2281.

 

page 77, reached that 80-degree threshold.

Zhang, C., 1993. Large-scale variability of atmospheric deep convection in relation to sea surface temperature in the tropics. Journal of Climate 6: 1898–1913.

 

page 77, with major Atlantic hurricanes.

Michaels, P.J., P.C. Knappenberger, and R.E. Davis, 2006. Sea-surface temperatures and tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L09708, 1–4.

 

page 87, is warming relatively faster.

Trenberth, K.E., 1999. Conceptual framework for changes of extremes of the hydrological cycle with climate change, in Karl, T.R., N. Nicholls, and A. Ghazi (eds.). Weather and Climate Extremes: Changes, Variations and a Perspective from the Insurance Industry, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

 

page 78, than relatively cool seasons.

Karl, T., and K. Trenberth, 2003. Modern global climate change. Science 302: 1719–1723.

 

page 78, 600 miles of the storm.

Trenberth, K.E., 1999. Atmospheric moisture recycling: role of advection and local evaporation, Journal of Climate 12: 1368–1381.

 

page 79, a “lake effect.”

Burnett, A.W., M.E. Kirby, H.T. Mullins, and W.P. Patterson, 2003. Increasing Great Lake-effect snowfall during the twentieth century: a regional response to global warming? Journal of Climate 16: 3535–3541.

 

page 79, colleagues have documented.

Mote, P.W., A.F. Hamlet, M.P. Clark, and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2005. Declining mountain snowpack in western North America. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86: 39–49.

 

page 79, Noah Knowles found.

Knowles, N., M.D. Dettinger, and D.R. Cayan, 2006. Trends in snowfall versus rainfall in the western United States. Journal of Climate 19: 4545–4559.

 

page 79, Stewart and colleagues showed.

Stewart, I.T., D.R. Cayan, and M.D. Dettinger, 2005. Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America. Journal of Climate 18: 1136–1155.

 

page 80, National Climate Data Center.

Groisman, P.Y, R.W. Knight, T.R. Karl, D.R. Easterling, B. Sun, and J.H. Lawrimore, 2004. Contemporary changes of the hydrological cycle over the contiguous United States: trends derived from in situ observations. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5: 64–85.

 

page 82, two hundred or more days a year.

Aguado, E., and J.E. Burt, 1999. Understanding Weather and Climate. Prentice-Hall Inc., a division of Simon & Schuster, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey (p. 188), 474 pp.

 

page 82, summer’s intense heating.

Bridgman, H.A., and J.E. Oliver, 2006. The Global Climate System: Patterns, Processes and Teleconnections. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (p. 61, fig. 3.2), 331 pp.

 

page 82, Goswami and colleagues reported.

Goswami, B.N., J. Shukla, E.K. Schneider, and Y.C. Sud, 1984. Study of the dynamics of the Intertropical Convergence Zone with a symmetric version of the GLAS Climate Model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 41(1): 5–19.

 

page 83, National Climate Prediction Center.

Higgins, R.W., Y. Yao, and X.L. Wang, 1997. Influence of the North American Monsoon system on the U.S. summer precipitation regime. Journal of Climate 10: 2600-2622.

 

page 84, about 10 miles, they found.

Seidel, D.J., and W.J. Randel, 2007. Recent widening of the tropical belt: evidence from tropopause observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: D20113, 1–6.

 

page 84, 2008 paper with colleagues.

Seidel, D.J., Q. Fu, W.J. Randel, and T.J. Reichler, 2008. Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate. Nature Geoscience 1: 21–24. (See box 1 for a summary of the model projections.)

 

page 84, on average since 1979.

Hu, Y., and Q. Fu, 2007. Observed poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation since 1979. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7: 5229–5236.

 

page 85, warming has only just begun.

Zhang, X., F.W. Zwiers, G.C. Hegerl, F.H. Lambert, N.P. Gillett, S. Solomon, P.A. Stott, and T. Nozawa, 2007. Detection of human influence on twentieth-century precipitation trends. Nature 448: 461–465.

 

page 85, (IPCC) report.

Trenberth, K.E., P.D. Jones, P. Ambenje, R. Bojariu, D. Easterling, A. Klein Tank, D. Parker, F. Rahimzadeh, J.A. Renwick, M. Rusticucci, B. Soden, and P. Zhai, 2007. Observations: surface and Atmospheric Climate Change, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Solomon, S.D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York. Relevant data reported in table 3.4B.

 

page 87, judging from sediment cores.

Ruddiman, W.F., 2001. Earth’s Climate: Past and Future. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, (p. 282), 465 pp.

 

page 87, winds swept down from glaciers.

Bowen, M., 2005. Thin Ice: Unlocking the Secrets of Climate in the World’s Highest Mountains, Henry Holt and Company, New York (p. 251), citing Thompson, L.G., and E. Mosley-Thompson, 1981. Microparticle concentration variations linked with climatic change: evidence from polar ice cores. Science 212: 812–815.

 

page 87, height of the last ice age.

Ruddiman, W.F. 2001. Earth’s Climate: Past and Future. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (p. 238), 465 pp., citing Sarnthein, M., 1978. Sand deserts during glacial maximum and climatic optimum. Nature 272: 43–46.

 

page 87, come from stronger winds.

Broecker, W.S., 2002. The Glacial World According to Wally, available through Eldigio Press, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York, 76 pp.

 

page 88, portion of western Utah.

Broecker, W.S., 2002. The Glacial World According to Wally. Available through Eldigio Press, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York (p. 61), 76 pp.

 

page 88, vegetation changes that occurred.

Prentice, C., P.J. Bartlein, and T. Webb III, 1991. Vegetation and climate change in eastern North America since the Last Glacial Maximum. Ecology 72(6): 2038–2056.

 

page 88, snowfall dropped by about half.

Broecker, W.S., 2002. The Glacial World According to Wally, available through Eldigio Press, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York (p. 63), 76 pp.

 

page 88, Michael Thomas and Martin Thorp.

Thomas, M.F., and M.B. Thorp, 1996. The response of geomorphic systems to climatic and hydrologic change during the Late Glacial and early Holocene in the humid and sub-humid tropics, pp. 139–153 in Branson, J., A.G. Brown, and K.J. Gregory (eds.), Global Continental Changes: The Context of Palaeohydrology, Geological Society Special Publication No. 115.

 

page 88, about 15 degrees.

Ruddiman, W.F., 2001. Earth’s Climate: Past and Future, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (p. 238), 465 pp., citing Sarnthein, M., 1978. Sand deserts during glacial maximum and climatic optimum. Nature 272: 43–46.

 

page 89, all the way to the Arctic.

Jahren, A.H., and L.S.L. Sternberg, 2002. Eocene meridional weather patterns reflected in the oxygen isotopes of arctic fossil wood. GSA Today 12(1): 4–9.

 

page 89, North during this hothouse.

Hovan, S.A., M.D. Vanden Berg, D.K. Rea, J.D. Gleason, and Ocean Drilling Program Leg 198 Shipboard Party, 2002. The Paleogene Intertropical Convergence Zone. Eos Transactions AGU 83(47), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract PP21D-07.

 

page 89, high-pressure cell over the poles.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Skelton, P.W. (ed.), The Open University and Cambridge University Press, Cambridge(p. 161), 360 pp.

 

page 89, 55 million years ago.

Zachos, J., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups, 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292: 686–693, citing the following two papers: Robert, C., and J.P. Kennett 1992, Mar Geol 103: 99; T.G. Gibson, L.M. Bybell, and D.B. Mason, 2000, Sedimentary Geology 134: 65.

 

page 90, at a balmy 85 degrees Fahrenheit.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Skelton, P.W. (ed.), The Open University and Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. (p. 219), 360 pp.

 

page 90, 70 percent it claims today.

DeConto, R.M., E.C. Brady, J. Bergengren, and W. Hay, 2000. Late Cretaceous climate, vegetation, and ocean interactions, pp. 275–296 in Huber, B.T., K.G. MacLeod, and S.L. Wing (eds.), Warm Climates in Earth History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 462 pp. (Conversion is based on their calculation that land covered 20% less area than today.)

 

page 91, fossils and oil shales today.

Norris, R.D., R.M. Corfield, and K. Hayes-Baker, 2000. Mountains and Eocene climate, pp. 161–196 in Huber, B.T., K.G. MacLeod, and S.L. Wing (eds.), Warm Climates in Earth History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 462 pp. Also, Sloan, L.C., 1994. Equable climate during the early Eocene: significance of regional paleogeography for North American climate, Geology 22: 881–884.

 

page 91, Wyoming and lands north and south.

DeConto, R.M., E.C. Brady, J. Bergengren, and W. Hay, 2000. Late Cretaceous climate, vegetation, and ocean interactions, pp. 275–296 in Huber, B.T., K.G. MacLeod, and S.L. Wing (eds.), Warm Climates in Earth History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 462 pp., citing Valdes, P.J., B.W. Sellwood, and G.D. Price, 1996. Evaluating concepts of Cretaceous equability, Paleoclimates 2: 139–158.

 

page 91, recordkeeping began in 1930.

Davis, T., 2005. San Pedro River is running dry, Arizona Daily Star, July 13, 2005. The article notes that the local population was then rising at a rate of 7 percent per year.

 

page 92, with repercussions elsewhere as well.

Broecker, W., 1997. Themohaline circulation, the Achilles’ Heel of our climate system: Will manmade CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278: 1582–1588. Broecker, W., 1997. Will our ride into the green-house future be a smooth one? GSA Today 5: 1–17.

 

page 93, 2005 book Thin Ice.

Bowen, M., 2005. Thin Ice: Unlocking the Secrets of Climate in the World’s Highest Mountains, Henry Holt and Company, New York (p. 251), citing a manuscript Broecker submitted to the Phi Beta Kappa Society.

 

page 93, including Lisa Sloan.

Zachos, J., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups, 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292: 686–693.

 

page 93, a few degrees above freezing.

Broecker, W.S., 2002. The Glacial World According to Wally. Available through Eldigio Press, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York (pp. 2–3 of Records chapter), 76 pp.

 

page 93, Ellesmere Island, near Greenland.

Markwick, P.J., 1994. “Equability,” continentality, and Tertiary “climate”: The crocodilian perspective. Geology 22: 613–616.

 

page 94, monsoon since the last ice age.

Gupta, A.K., D.M. Anderson, and J.T. Overpeck, 2003. Abrupt changes in the Asian southwest monsoon during the Holocene and their links to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 421: 354–357.

 

page 94, past 110,000 years.

Schultz, H., U. von Rad, and H. Erlenkeuser, 1998. Correlation between Arabian Sea and Greenland climate oscillations of the past 110,000 years. Nature 393: 54–57.

 

Chapter 5

 

page 96, projected for the near future.

Hundreds of papers document the effect of carbon dioxide fertilization on plants, including Nowak, R.S., D.S. Ellsworth, and S.D. Smith, 2004. Tansley Review: Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2—Do photosynthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early predictions? New Phytologist 162: 253–280. Norby, R.J., S.D. Wullschleger, C.A. Gunderson, D.W. Johnson, and R. Ceulemans, 1999. Tree responses to rising CO2 in field experiments: implications for the future forest. Plant, Cell and Environment 22: 683–714.

 

page 97, higher than modern values.

Kenrich, Paul, and Paul Davis, 2004. Fossil Plants. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C., in association with the Natural History Museum of London, 216 pp.

 

page 98, coal, oil, gas, and forests.

Stephens, B.B., K.R. Gurney, P.P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machia, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R.L. Langenfelds, L.P. Steele, R.J. Francey, and A.S. Denning, 2007. Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2. Science 316: 1732–1735.

 

page 100, grown in our current atmosphere.

Stafford, N., 2007. The other greenhouse effect. Nature News Feature 448: 526–528.

 

page 100, grown under normal conditions.

Stafford, N., 2007. The other greenhouse effect. Nature News Feature 448: 526–528.

 

page 100, twelve days throughout the decade.

Myneni, R.B., C.D. Keeling, C.J. Tucker, G. Asrar, and R.R. Nemani, 1997. Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature 386: 698–702.

 

page 101, and other seasonal signs of spring.

Root, T.L., D.P. MacMynowski, M.D. Mastrandrea, and S.H. Schneider, 2005. Human modified temperatures induce species change: joint attribution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102: 7465–7469.

 

page 101, typical “treeline” cutoff.

Grace, J., F. Berninger, L. Nagy, 2002. Impacts of climate change on tree line, Annals of Botany 90: 537–544.

 

page 101, growth compared to previous years.

Paulson, J., U.B. Weber, and Ch. Körner, 2000. Tree growth near treeline: abrupt or gradual reduction with altitude? Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 32: 14–20.

 

page 102, Sierra Nevada mountains.

Graumlich, L.J., 1991. Subalpine tree growth, climate, and increasing CO2: an assessment of recent growth trends. Ecology 72(1): 1–11.

 

page 102, as Jarvis and Linder noted in a Nature brief.

Jarvis, P., and S. Linder, 2000. Constraints to growth of boreal forests. Nature Brief Communication 405: 904–905, citing Linder, S., 1995. Foliar analysis for detecting and correcting nutrient imbalances in Norway spruce. Ecological Bulletins (Copenhagen) 44: 178–190.

 

page 103, more carbon than expected.

Magnani, F., M. Mencuccini, M. Borghetti, F. Berninger, S. Delzon, A. Grelle, P. Hari, P.G. Jarvis, P. Kolari, A.S. Kowalski, H. Lankreijer, B.E. Law, A. Lindroth, D. Loustau, G. Manca, J.B. Moncrieff, V. Tedeschi, R. Valentini, and J. Grace, 2007. The human footprint in the carbon cycle of temperate and boreal forests. Nature 447: 848–850.

 

page 103, annual fossil fuel emissions.

Liski, J., A.V. Korotkov, C.F.L. Prins, T. Karjalainen, D.G. Victor, and P.E. Kauppi, 2003. Increased carbon sink in temperate and boreal forests. Climatic Change 61: 89–99.

 

page 103, increasing their biomass.

Kauppi, P.E., K. Mielikäinen, and K. Kuusela, 1992. Biomass and carbon budget of European forests, 1971 to 1990. Science 256: 70-74.

 

page 103, tree-ring records revealed.

Jacoby, G.C., R.D. D’Arrigo, and T. Davaajamts, 1996. Mongolian tree rings and 20th-century warming. Science 273: 771–773.

 

page 104, North America’s extra uptake of carbon.

Houghton, R.A., J.L. Hackler, and J.T. Lawrence, 1999. The U.S. carbon budget: contributions from land-use change. Science 285: 574–578.

 

page 104, more carbon than grasslands.

Jackson, R.B., J.L. Banner, E.G. Jobbágy, W.T. Pockman, and D.H. Wall, 2002. Ecosystem carbon loss with woody plant invasion of grasslands. Nature 418: 623–626.

 

page 104, reported in a 2008 paper.

Knapp, A.K., J.M. Briggs, S.L. Collins, S.R. Archer, M.S. Bret-Harte, B.E. Ewers, D.P. Peters, D.R. Young, G.R. Shaver, E. Pendell, and M.B. Cleary, 2008. Shrub encroachment in North American grasslands: shifts in growth form dominance rapidly alters control of ecosystem carbon inputs. Global Change Biology 14: 615–623.

 

page 104, in a 2005 literature review.

Shaw, M.R., T.E. Huxman, and C.P. Lund, 2005. Modern and future semi-arid and arid ecosystems, pp. 415–440 in Ehleringer, J.R., M.D. Dearing, and T.E. Cerling (eds.), A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants, Animals and Ecosystems, Springer, Berlin, 530 pp. “This may be the most consistent trend in the C3 vs. C4 literature,” the article states about CO2 fertilization favoring trees and herbs over grasses.

 

page 104, up in time by only two days.

Root, T.L., D.P. MacMynowski, M.D. Mastrandrea, and S.H. Schneider, 2005. Human modified temperatures induce species change: joint attribution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102: 7465–7469.

 

page 105, Oliver Phillips and others suggested.

Phillips, O.L., Y Malhi, N. Higuchi, W.F. Laurance, P.V. Nunez, R.M. Vasquez, S.G. Laurance, L.V. Ferreira, M. Stern, S. Brown, and J. Grace, 1998. Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forests: evidence from long-term plots. Science 282: 439–442.

 

page 105, were taking up carbon.

Grace, J., J. Lloyd, J. McIntyre, A.C. Miranda, P. Meir, H.S. Miranda, C. Nobre, J. Moncrieff, J. Massheder, Y. Malhi, I. Wright, and J. Gash, 1995. Carbon dioxide uptake by an undisturbed tropical rain forest in Southwest Amazonia, 1992 to 1993. Science 270: 778–780.

 

page 105, Phillips team indicated.

Phillips, O.L., Y Malhi, N. Higuchi, W.F. Laurance, P.V. Nunez, R.M. Vasquez, S.G. Laurance, L.V. Ferreira, M. Stern, S. Brown, and J. Grace, 1998. Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forests: evidence from long-term plots. Science 282: 439–442.

 

page 105, included tropical dry forests.

Based on data for forest area coupled with percent tropical forest from Tables 2 and 3 of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2003. State of the World’s Forests, FAO, Rome. Posted on the web at http://www.fao.org/

 

page 105, questioning the measuring techniques.

Clark, D.A., 2002. Are tropical forests an important carbon sink? Reanalysis of the long-term plot data. Ecological Applications 12(1): 3–7. Clark suggested that inattention to tree buttresses—growths on the lower trunk that help support trees accustomed to soggy soils—could have inflated estimates by perhaps double. Kruijt, B., J.A. Elbers, C. von Randow, A.C. Araújo, P.J. Oliveira, A. Culf, A.O. Manzi, A.D. Nobre, P. Kabat, and E.J. Moors, 2004. The robustness of eddy correlation fluxes for Amazon rain forest conditions. Ecological Applications 14(4), supplement: S101–S113.

 

page 105, the razing of regional forests.

Stephens, B.B., K.R. Gurney, P.P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machia, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R.L. Langenfelds, L.P. Steele, R.J. Francey, and A.S. Denning, 2007. Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2. Science 316: 1732–1735.

 

page 106, Nicolas Gruber and colleagues.

Gruber, N., P. Friedlingstein, C.B. Field, R. Valentini, M. Heimann, J.E. Richey, P. Romero Lankao, E.D. Schultze, and C.-T.A. Chen, 2004. The Vulnerability of the Carbon Cycle in the 21st Century: an Assessment of Carbon-Climate-Human Interactions, pp. 45–76 in Field, C.B., and M.R. Raupach (eds.), The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World, a project of SCOPE (the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) of the International Council for Science, Island Press, Washington, D.C.

 

page 106, more than 95 percent.

Vitousek, P.M., T. Fahey, D.W. Johnson, and M.J. Swift, 1988. Element interactions in forest ecosystems: succession, allometry and input-output budgets. Biogeochemistry 5: 7–34.

 

page 106, 40 percent of the global area of forests.

Dixon, R.K., S. Brown, R.A. Houghton, A.M. Solomon, M.C. Trexler, and J. Wisniewski, 1994. Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science 263: 185–190. The tally counts living and dead aboveground biomass.

 

page 107, would colonize a site.

Holdridge, L.R., 1947. Determination of world plant formations from simple climatic data. Science 105: 367–368. Holdridge, L.R., 1967. Life Zone Ecology, Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica, 206 pp.

 

page 107, grow in a specific location.

For a more recent description of this process and why it works, see Prentice, I.C., W. Cramer, S.P. Harrison, R. Leemans, R.A. Monserud, and A.M. Solomon, 1992. A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate. Journal of Biogeography 19: 117–134.

 

page 107, greenery can form, if any.

Woodward, F.I., 1987. Climate and Plant Distribution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 174 pp. This refers specifically to leaf area index, which increases as the amount of foliage does.

 

page 108, indication of its overall productivity.

Schlesinger, W.H., 1991. Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, 120 pp. Citing Gholz, H.L., 1982. Environmental limits on aboveground net primary production, leaf area, and biomass in vegetation zones of the Pacific Northwest. Ecology 66: 647–659.

 

page 108, measured by scientists.

Keeling, H.C., and O.L. Phillips, 2007. The global relationship between forest productivity and biomass. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 618–631. While tropical lowland forests averaged about 300 megagrams per hectare, values for four sequoia stands ranged from 1500 to 3300 megagrams per hectare (p. 623).

 

page 108, Ancient Forests of the Pacific Northwest.

Norse, E.A., 1990. Ancient Forests of the Pacific Northwest. The Wilderness Society and Island Press, Washington, D.C. (p. 21), 327 pp.

 

page 108–109, Todd Dawson indicated.

Dawson, T.E., 1998. Fog in the California redwood forest: ecosystem inputs and use by plants. Oecologia 117: 476–485.

 

page 109, Louisiana, as Norse reports.

Norse, E.A., 1990. Ancient Forests of the Pacific Northwest. The Wilderness Society and Island Press, Washington, D.C., 327 pp.

 

page 109, book The World without Us.

Weisman, A., 2007. The World without Us. Thomas Dunne Books, an imprint of St. Martin’s Press, New York, 324 pp.

 

page 110, Brazilian government’s protection efforts.

Based on data for forest area coupled with percent tropical forest from tables 2 and 3 of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2003. State of the World’s Forests, FAO, Rome. Posted on the Web at http://www.fao.org/

 

page 110, 2006 book The Revenge of Gaia.

Lovelock, J., 2006. The Revenge of Gaia: Why the Earth Is Fighting Back—And How We Can Still Save Humanity. Allen Lane, an imprint of Penguin Books, London (p. 177). Although Lovelock doesn’t cite a specific reference for his self-described “imaginary sketches” that show the world’s forests relegated to the high latitudes given a 5 degree Celsius temperature rise (p. 63), he does refer (on p. 51) to a modeling study by Hadley Centre researchers Richard Betts and Peter Cox implying that “a rise in temperature globally of 4° C is enough to destabilize the tropical rain forests and cause them, like the Greenland ice, to melt away and be replaced by scrub or desert.”

 

page 110, included in their model.

Cox, P.M., R.A. Betts, M. Collins, P. Harris, C. Huntingford, and C.D. Jones, 2003. Amazon Dieback under Climate-Carbon Cycle Projections for the 21st Century, Hadley Centre Technical Note 42, March 2003. Betts, R.A., P.M. Cox, M. Collins, P.P. Harris, C. Huntingford, and C.D. Jones, 2004. The role of ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in simulated Amazonia precipitation decrease and forest dieback under global climate warming. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 78: 157–175.

 

page 110, and oceans in the future.

Friedlingstein, P., P. Cox, R. Betts, L. Bopp, W. von Bloh, V. Brovkin, P. Cadule, S. Doney, M. Eby, I. Fung, G. Bala, J. John, C. Jones, F. Joos, T. Kato, M. Kawamiya, W. Knorr, K. Lindsay, H.D. Matthews, T. Raddatz, P. Rayner, C. Reick, E. Roeckner, K.-G. Schnitzler, R. Schnur, K. Strassmann, A.J. Weaver, C. Yoshikawa, and N. Zeng, 2006. Climate–carbon cycle feedback analysis: results from the C4MIP model intercomparison. Journal of Climate 19: 3337–3353.

 

page 111, year by century’s end.

Thompson, S.L., B. Govindasamy, A. Mirin, K. Caldeira, C. Delire, J. Milovich, M. Wickett, and D. Erickson, 2004. Quantifying the effects of CO2–fertilized vegetation on future global climate. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L23211.

 

page 111, in hot, humid environments.

Wolfe, J., 1993. A method of obtaining climate parameters from leaf assemblages, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2040.

 

page 111, year per square foot of ground.

Keeling, H.C., and O.L. Phillips, 2007. The global relationship between forest productivity and biomass. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 618–631.

 

page 113, even upright tree trunks.

Parrish, J.T., and R.A. Spicer, 1988. Middle Cretaceous wood from the Nanushuk Group, central North Slope, Alaska. Paleontology 31: 19–34.

 

page 113, mere degrees away from the North Pole.

Parrish, J.T., and R.A. Spicer, 1988. Late Cretaceous terrestrial vegetation: a near-polar temperature curve. Geology 16: 22–25.

 

page 113, that rarely face hard freezes.

Skelton, P.W., Spicer, R.A., S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (p. 110), 360 pp.

 

page 113, Nanushuk wood fossils.

Skelton, P.W., Spicer, R.A., S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (p. 129), 360 pp.

 

page 113, within the Antarctic Circle.

Parrish, J.T., I.L. Daniel, E.M. Kennedy, and R.A. Spicer, 1998. Paleoclimatic significance of mid-Cretaceous floras from the Middle Clarence Valley, New Zealand. Palaios 13: 149–159.

 

page 113, Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History.

Wing, S.L., L.J. Hickey, and C.C. Swisher, 1993. Implications of an exceptional fossil flora for Late Cretaceous vegetation. Nature 363: 342–344.

 

page 114, less than half an inch high.

Thomas, P., 2000. Trees: Their Natural History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. (p. 9), 286 pp.

 

page 114, 70 degrees North these days.

Beerling, D., 2007. The Emerald Planet: How Plants Changed Earth’s History, Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K. (p. 124), 288 pp.

 

page 114, by dropping their leaves.

Beerling, D., 2007. The Emerald Planet: How Plants Changed Earth’s History, Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K. 288 pp.

 

page 114, Colombia and Southeast Asia.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 360 pp.

 

page 114, started going their separate ways.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 360 pp. Underwater volcanoes were unusually active in the period spanning the mid-Cretaceous, 121 to 83 million years ago.

 

page 115, Earth’s history than they are today.

Beerling, D.J., F.I. Woodward, and P.J. Valdes, 1999. Global terrestrial productivity in the mid-Cretaceous (100 Ma): model simulations and data, in Barrera, E., and C.C. Johnson (eds.), Evolution of the Cretaceous Ocean-Climate System, Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Paper 332.

 

page 115, bumped up those temperatures.

Bice, K.A., D. Birgel, P.A. Meyers, K.A. Dahl, K.U. Hinrichs, and R.D. Norris, 2006. A multiple proxy and model study of Cretaceous upper ocean temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Paleoceanography 21: PA2002, 1–17.

 

page 116, their closest kin now thrive.

Parrish, J.T., 1998. Interpreting Pre-Quaternary Climate from the Geologic Record, Columbia University Press, New York, 338 pp.

 

page 116, deep winter freezes.

Parrish, J.T., 1998. Interpreting Pre-Quaternary Climate from the Geologic Record, Columbia University Press, New York, 338 pp.

 

page 117, interglacial warm periods of the last million years.

Pearson, P.N., and M.R. Palmer, 1999. Middle Eocene seawater pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Science 284: 1824–1826. The authors’ references, especially those numbered 12 through 16, cite other researchers providing this range of carbon dioxide levels.

 

page 117, ancient sea-dwelling forams.

Pearson, P.N., and M.R. Palmer, 1999. Middle Eocene seawater pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Science 284: 1824–1826.

 

page 117, different experimental technique.

Pagani, M., K.H. Freeman, and M.A. Arthur, 1999. Late Miocene atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the expansion of C4 grasses. Science 285: 876–879.

 

page 117, the lowest levels reported.

Cowling, S.A., 1999. Plants and temperature CO2 uncoupling. Science 285: 1500-1501.

 

page 117, Pearson and Palmer reported additional data.

Pearson, P.N., and M.R. Palmer, 2000. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature 406: 695–699.

 

page 118, world’s water supplies.

Ruddiman, W.F., 2001. Earth’s Climate: Past and Future, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (p. 148), 465 pp.

 

page 118, were available to extinct grazers.

Cerling, T.E., J.M. Harris, B.J. MacFadden, M.G. Leakey, J. Quade, V. Eisenmann, and J.R. Ehleringer, 1997. Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389: 153–158.

 

page 120, describe in a 1991 paper.

Ehleringer, J.R., R.F. Sage, L.B. Flanagan, and R.W. Pearcy, 1991. Climate change and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. TREE 6(3): 95–99.

 

page 120, airborne carbon dioxide.

Ehleringer, J.R., R.F. Sage, L.B. Flanagan, and R.W. Pearcy, 1991. Climate change and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. TREE 6(3): 95–99.

 

page 120, the evolutionary Tree of Life.

Cerling, T.E., J.M. Harris, B.J. MacFadden, M.G. Leakey, J. Quade, V. Eisenmann, and J.R. Ehleringer, 1997. Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389: 153–158.

 

page 120, on Earth use the low-carbon pathway.

Cerling, T.E., J.M. Harris, B.J. MacFadden, M.G. Leakey, J. Quade, V. Eisenmann, and J.R. Ehleringer, 1997. Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389: 153–158.

 

page 121, by James Zachos and others.

Zachos, J., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups, 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292: 686–693.

 

page 121, rain-forest status to savanna.

Shackleton, N.J., J. Backman, H. Zimmerman, D.V. Kent, M.A. Hall, D.G. Roberts, D. Schnitker, J.G. Baldauf, A. Despairies, R. Homrighausen, P. Huddlestun, J.B. Keene, A.J. Kaltenback, K.A.O. Krumsiek, A.C. Morton, J.W. Murray, and J. Westburg-Smith, 1984. Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of ice-rafting and history of glaciation in the North Atlantic region. Nature 307: 620-623.

 

page 121, Petit concluded from Vostok cores.

Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V.Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pepin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard, 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399: 429–436. Values were converted to Fahrenheit using a range of 8 to 9 degrees Celsius below the mid-century norm, 2 or 3 degrees Celsius above it.

 

page 122, Robert Peters described in Biodiversity.

Peters, R.L., III, 1988. The effect of global climate change on natural communities, pp. 450-461 in Wilson, E.O., and F.M. Peters (eds.), Biodiversity, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

 

page 122, north than Chicago.

U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Northern Research Station.

 

page 122, and Patrick Bartlein showed.

Whitlock, C., and P.J. Bartlein, 1997. Vegetation and climate change in northwestern America during the past 125 kyr. Nature 388: 57–61.

 

page 122, hardwood forests thrived in Europe.

Kukla, G.J., M.L. Bender, J.-L. de Beaulieu, G. Bond, W.S. Broecker, P. Cleveringa, J.E. Gavin, T.D. Herbert, J. Imbrie, J. Jouzel, L.D. Keigwin, K.-L. Knudsen, J.F. McManus, J. Merkt, D.R. Muhs, and H. Müller, 2002. Last interglacial climates. Quaternary Research 58: 2–13.

 

page 122, gave the Eemian its name.

Kukla, G.J., M.L. Bender, J.-L. de Beaulieu, G. Bond, W.S. Broecker, P. Cleveringa, J.E. Gavin, T.D. Herbert, J. Imbrie, J. Jouzel, L.D. Keigwin, K.-L. Knudsen, J.F. McManus, J. Merkt, D.R. Muhs, and H. Müller, 2002. Last interglacial climates. Quaternary Research 58: 2–13.

 

page 122, described in Hothouse Earth.

Gribbin, J., 1990. Hothouse Earth: The Greenhouse Effect and Gaia, Grove Weidenfeld, New York (p. 224), 283 pp.

 

page 122, of specific beetle species.

Bradley, R.S., 1985. Quaternary Paleoclimatology: Methods of Paleoclimatic Reconstruction, Unwin Hyman, Boston (p. 287), 472 pp. Citing Coope, G.R., 1974. Interglacial coleoptera from Bobbitshole, Ipswich. Journal of the Geological Society of London 130: 333–340.

 

page 123, amount on the plain today.

Zelikson, E.M., O.K. Borisova, C.V. Kremenetsky, and A.A. Velichko, 1998. Phytomass and carbon storage during the Eemian optimum, late Weichselian maximum and Holocene optimum in eastern Europe. Global and Planetary Climate Change 16–17: 181–195.

 

page 123, where tundra now exists.

Modeled values generated by G. Schurgers and colleagues were not included in the text because the results appear to be inconsistent with the evidence. Although the model started with an increase in global carbon storage that conformed to interpretations from fossil evidence for the Eemian, this initial increase was followed by rapid decreases in land-based carbon storage that were unanchored to the fossil record. Schurgers, G., U. Mikolajewicz, M. Gröger, E. Maier-Reimer, M. Vizcaíno, and A. Winguth, 2006. Changes in terrestrial carbon storage during interglacials: a comparison between Eemian and Holocene. Climate of the Past Discussions 2: 449–483.

 

page 123, Project (COHMAP).

Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP) members, 1988. Climatic changes of the last 18,000 years: observations and model simulations. Science 241: 1043–1052.

 

page 123, Thompson Webb and others showed.

Webb, T., K.H. Anderson, P.J. Bartlein, and R.S. Webb, 1998. Late Quaternary climate change in eastern North America: a comparison of pollen-derived estimates with climate model results. Quaternary Science Reviews 17: 587–606.

 

page 123, farther north than Missouri.

Davis, M.B., 1986. Climatic instability, time lags, and community disequilibrium, pp. 269–284 in Diamond, J., and T.J. Case (eds.), Community Ecology, Harper and Row Publishers, New York.

 

page 123, forests of Douglas fir and ponderosa pine.

Whitlock, C., and P.J. Bartlein, 1997. Vegetation and climate change in northwestern America during the past 125 kyr. Nature 388: 57–61.

 

page 124, and scholars of global change.

Ruddiman, W.F., 2001. Earth’s Climate, Past and Future, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (p. 292, adapted from Flint, R.F., 1971. Glacial and Quaternary Geology, John Wiley, New York), 465 pp.

 

page 124, as Ruddiman notes.

Ruddiman, W.F., 2001. Earth’s Climate, Past and Future, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 465 pp.

 

page 124, and Martin Thorp noted.

Thomas, M.F., and M.B. Thorp, 1996. The response of geomorphic systems to climatic and hydrologic change during the Late Glacial and early Holocene in the humid and sub-humid tropics, pp. 139–153 in Branson, J., A.G. Brown and K.J. Gregory (eds.), Global Continental Changes: the Context of Palaeohydrology, Geological Society Special Publication No. 115.

 

page 124, lowland rain forests to savannas.

Walker, D., and Y. Chen, 1987. Palynological light on tropical rain forest dynamics. Quaternary Science Review 6: 77–92.

 

page 124, forests shrunk during the last glacial.

Wilson, R.C.L., S.A. Drury, and J.L. Chapman, 2000. The Great Ice Age: Climate Change and Life, Routledge, a division of the Taylor & Francis Group, London and New York (p. 175), 267 pp.

 

page 125, underwater on the continental shelf.

Ruddiman, W.F., 2001. Earth’s Climate, Past and Future, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (p. 241), 465 pp.

 

page 125, 18,000 years ago during the last ice age.

Zelikson, E.M., O.K. Borisova, C.V. Kremenetsky, and A.A. Velichko, 1998. Phytomass and carbon storage during the Eemian optimum, late Weichselian maximum and Holocene optimum in eastern Europe. Global and Planetary Climate Change 16–17: 181–195.

 

page 125, Earth’s Climate: Past and Future.

Ruddiman, W.F., 2001. Earth’s Climate, Past and Future, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (p. 241), 465 pp.

 

page 125, billion tons compared to today.

Woodwell, G.M., F.T. Mackenzie, R.A. Houghton, M. Apps, E. Gorham, and E. Davidson, 1998. Biotic feedbacks in the warming of the Earth. Climatic Change 40: 495–518. Adams, J.M., and H. Faure, 1996. Changes in moisture balance between glacial and interglacial conditions: influence on carbon cycle processes, pp. 27–42 in Branson, J., A.G. Brown, and K.J. Gregory (eds.), Global Continental Changes: The Context of Palaeohydrology, Geological Society Special Publication No. 115.

 

page 126, biological and human components.”

Lovelock, J., 2003. The living Earth. Nature 426: 769–770 (December 18/25).

 

page 130, per acre of soil per year,

Converted from 50 grams of carbon per square meter per year.

 

page 130, convert back into forest.

Lugo, A.E., M.J. Sanchez, and S. Brown, 1986. Land use and organic carbon content of some subtropical soils. Plant and Soil 96: 185–196.

 

page 130, about half as quickly.

Schlesinger, W.H., J. Palmer Winkler and J.P. Megonigal, 2000. Soils and the global carbon cycle, pp. 93–101 in Wigley, T.M.L., and D.S. Schimel (eds.), The Carbon Cycle, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 292 pp.

 

page 131, soil profiles collected over the years.

Jobbágy, E.G., and R.B. Jackson, 2000. The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation. Ecological Applications 10(2): 423–436.

 

page 131, averages about 7.5 feet deep.

Gorham, E., 1991. Northern peatlands: role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climatic warming. Ecological Applications 1(2): 182–195.

 

page 131, 20 feet or more below the surface.

Scatena, F.N., 1989. An Introduction to the Physiography and History of the Bisley Experimental Watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report, SO-72, 22 pp.

 

page 132, 7 percent since the arrival of woody plants.

Knapp, A.K., J.M. Briggs, S.L. Collins, S.R. Archer, M.S. Bret-Harte, B.E. Ewers, D.P. Peters, D.R. Young, G.R. Shaver, E. Pendell, and M.B. Cleary, 2008. Shrub encroachment in North American grasslands: shifts in growth form dominance rapidly alters control of ecosystem carbon inputs. Global Change Biology 14: 615–623.

 

page 132, throughout the life of a tree.

Santantonio, D., R.K. Hermann, and W.S. Overton, 1977. Root biomass studies in forest ecosystems. Pedobiologia 17: 1–31.

 

page 132, lead author Sandra Brown.

Brown, S., and A.E. Lugo, 1992. Aboveground biomass estimates for tropical moist forests of the Brazilian Amazon. Interciencia 17(1): 8–18.

 

page 133, to the first four years of decay.

Harmon, M.E., D.F. Whigham, J. Sexton, and I. Olmsted, 1995. Decomposition and mass of woody detritus in the dry tropical forests of Northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Biotropica 27(3): 305–316.

 

page 134, past several hundred years.

Bormann, B.T., H. Spaltenstein, M.H. McClellan, F.C. Ugolini, K. Cromack Jr., and S.M. Nay, 1995. Rapid soil development after windthrow disturbance in pristine forests. Journal of Ecology 83: 747–757.

 

page 134, carbon-rich humus.

The earlier storm occurred in 1830.

 

page 135, five-year experiment.

Jarvis, P., and S. Linder, 2000. Constraints to growth of boreal forests. Nature Brief Communication 405: 904–905.

 

page 136, constant” around the world.

Giardina, C.P., and M.G. Ryan, 2000. Evidence that decomposition rates of organic carbon in mineral soil do not vary with temperature. Nature 404: 858–861.

 

page 136, more sodden brethren, wetlands.

Khalil, M.A.K., M.J. Shearer, and R.A. Rasmussen, 2000. Methane sinks, distribution and trends, pp. 86–97 in Khalil, M.A.K. (ed.), Atmospheric Methane: Its Role in the Global Environment, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 351 pp.

 

page 136, with cattle grazing on them.

Keller, M., M.E. Mitre, and R.F. Stallard, 1990. Consumption of atmospheric methane in soils of Central Panama: effects of agricultural development. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 4(1): 21–27.

 

page 136, study in the Amazon.

Keller, M., R. Varner, J.D. Dias, H. Silva, P. Crill, R. Cosme de Oliveira Jr., and G.P. Asner, 2005. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide in logged and undisturbed forest in Tapajos National Forest, Brazil. Earth Interactions 9(23): 1–28.

 

page 137, from wetlands to forests.

Keppler, F., J.T.G. Hamilton, M. Braβ, Thomas Röckmann, 2006. Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. Nature 439: 187–191.

 

page 137, continues to inspire debate.

Hopkin, Michael. Missing gas saps plant theory. Nature, news report, 3 May 2007, p. 11.

 

page 137, Wim Sombroek and colleagues found.

Sombroek, W., F.O. Nachtergaele, and A. Hebel, 1993. Amounts, dynamics and sequestering of carbon in tropical and subtropical soils. Ambio 22(7): 417–426.

 

page 137, Gregory Noe and Cliff Hupp.

Noe, G.B., and C.R. Hupp, 2005. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in floodplains of Atlantic coastal plain rivers, USA. Ecological Applications 15(4): 1178–1190.

 

page 138, coming down to earth.

Chimner, R.A., and K.D. Ewel, 2005. A tropical freshwater wetlands: II. Production, decomposition, and peat formation. Wetlands Ecology and Management 13: 671–684. Reporting 527 grams of carbon accumulating per square meter each year in a Thai tropical peat swamp, citing Suzuki, S., T. Ishida, T. Nagano and S. Waijaroen, 1999. Influences of deforestation on carbon balance in a natural tropical peat swamp forest in Thailand. Environmental Control Biology 37: 115–128.

 

page 138, environment that sustains it.

Tidwell, M., 2003. Bayou Farewell: The Rich Life and Tragic Death of Louisiana’s Cajun Coast, Vintage Departures, a division of Random House, Inc., New York, 347 pp.

 

page 139, crustaceans to fecal pellets.

Tidwell, M., 2003. Bayou Farewell: The Rich Life and Tragic Death of Louisiana’s Cajun Coast, Vintage Departures, a division of Random House, Inc., New York (p. 145), 347 pp.

 

page 139, in a 2004 assessment.

Gruber, N., P. Friedlingstein, C.B. Field, R. Valentini, M. Heimann, J.E. Richey, P. Romero Lankao, E.D. Schultze, and C.-T.A. Chen, 2004. The vulnerability of the carbon cycle in the 21st century: An assessment of carbon-climate-human interactions, pp. 45–76 in Field, C.B., and M.R. Raupach (eds.), The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World, a project of SCOPE (the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) of the International Council for Science. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

 

page 139, since the end of the last ice age.

Value derived by applying a factor of 44/12 to convert numbers for carbon dioxide into carbon.

 

page 139, in their 2007 book Wetlands.

2%: Lugo, A.E., M. Brinson, and S. Brown (eds.), 1990. Ecosystems of the World: Forested wetlands, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 527 pp. 4%: Eswaran, H., E. Van Den Berg, and P. Reich, 1993. Organic carbon in soils of the world, Soil Science Society of America Journal 57: 192–194. 1% of Earth surface: Gunnarsson, U., 2005. Global patterns of Sphagnum productivity. Journal of Bryology 27: 269–279. Mitsch, W. J., and J. G. Gosselink, 2007. Wetlands (4th ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J.

 

page 140, blend into the forest.

Matthews, E., 2000. Wetlands, pp. 202–233 in Khalil, M.A.K. (ed.), Atmospheric Methane: Its Role in the Global Environment, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 351 pp.

 

page 140, Brinson and Sandra Brown.

Lugo, A.E., M. Brinson, and S. Brown (eds.), 1990. Ecosystems of the World: Forested Wetlands, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 527 pp.

 

page 140, by Gruber and colleagues.

Gruber, N., P. Friedlingstein, C.B. Field, R. Valentini, M. Heimann, J.E. Richey, P. Romero Lankao, E.D. Schultze, and C.-T.A. Chen, 2004. The vulnerability of the carbon cycle in the 21st century: An assessment of carbon-climate-human interactions, pp. 45–76 in Field, C.B., and M.R. Raupach (eds.), The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World, a project of SCOPE (the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) of the International Council for Science. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

 

page 141, the Okefenokee swamps.

Kenrich, P., and P. Davis, 2004. Fossil Plants, Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C., in association with the Natural History Museum, London (p. 81), 216 pp.

 

page 141, can form peat under the right conditions.

Bragg, O.M., 2002. Hydrology of peat-forming wetlands in Scotland. The Science of the Total Environment 294: 111–129.

 

page 141, than in seasonal bursts.

Parrish, J.T., 1998. Interpreting Pre-Quaternary Climate from the Geologic Record, Columbia University Press, New York, 338 pp.

 

page 141, Urban Gunnarsson found.

Gunnarsson, U., 2005. Global patterns of Sphagnum productivity. Journal of Bryology 27: 269–279.

 

page 141, northern sphagnum moss.

Gorham, E., 1991. Northern peatlands: role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climatic warming. Ecological Applications 1(2): 182–195. The authors indicate that the average rate is about 0.55 millimeters per year.

 

page 141, during this hothouse environment.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 360 pp., citing McCabe, P.J., and J.T. Parrish, 1992. Tectonic and climatic controls on the distribution and quality of Cretaceous coals, pp. 1–15 in McCabe, P.J., and J.T. Parrish (eds.), Controls on the Distribution and Quality of Cretaceous Coals, Special Paper 267, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo. Formation rates cited here are based on the values in fig. 4.39 on p. 125.

 

page 142, M.L. Goulden and colleagues.

Goulden, M.L., S.C. Wofsy, J.W. Harden, S.E. Trumbore, P.M. Crill, S.T. Gower, T. Fries, B.C. Daube, S.-M. Fan, D.J. Sutton, A. Bazzaz, and J.W. Munger, 1998. Sensitivity of boreal forest carbon balance to soil thaw. Science 279: 214–216. Based on the depth to 50 centimeters, or roughly 20 inches.

 

page 142, studying a Swedish mire.

Belyea, L.R., and N. Malmer, 2004. Carbon sequestration in peatland: patterns and mechanisms of response to climate change. Global Change Biology 10: 1043–1052.

 

page 142, above the local water table.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. (p. 122), 360 pp.

 

page 142, table rises and falls.

Papers that consider peatlands as self-sustaining systems include Belyea, L.R., and A.J. Baird, 2006. Beyond “The Limits to Peat Bog Growth”: Cross-scale feedback in peatland development, Ecological Monographs 76(3): 299–322. Hilbert, D.W., N. Roulet, and T. Moore, 2000. Modelling and analysis of peatlands as dynamical systems, Journal of Ecology 88: 230-242. Rietkerk, M., S.C. Dekker, M.J. Wassen, A.W.M. Verkroost, and M.F.P. Bierkens, 2004. A putative mechanism for bog patterning, American Naturalist 163(5): 699–708.

 

page 143, via carbon dioxide uptake.

Davidson, E.A., and P. Artaxo, 2004. Globally significant changes in biological processes of the Amazon Basin: results of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment. Global Change Biology 10: 519–529.

 

page 144, pipeline leaks and termites.

Khalil, M.A.K., and M.J. Shearer, 2000. Sources of methane: an overview, pp. 98–111 in Khalil, M.A.K. (ed.), Atmospheric Methane: Its Role in the Global Environment, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 351 pp.

 

page 144, Steve Frolking and Nigel Roulet found.

Frolking, S., and N.T. Roulet, 2007. Holocene radiative forcing impact of northern peatland carbon accumulation and methane emissions. Global Change Biology 13(5): 1079–1088.

 

page 145, possibly even for decades at a time.

Whiting, G.J., and J.P. Chanton, 2001. Greenhouse carbon balance of wetlands: methane emissions versus carbon sequestration. Tellus 53B: 521–528.

 

page 145, or less of wetlands area.

Matthews, E., 2000. Wetlands, pp. 202–233 in Khalil, M.A.K. (ed.), Atmospheric Methane: Its Role in the Global Environment, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 351 pp.

 

page 145, Gary Whiting and Jeffrey Chanton.

Whiting, G.J., and J.P. Chanton, 2001. Greenhouse carbon balance of wetlands: methane emissions versus carbon sequestration. Tellus 53B: 521–528.

 

page 145, “negligible” in coastal mangroves.

Sotomayor, D., J.E. Corredor, and J.M. Morell, 1994. Methane flux from mangrove sediments along the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico. Estuaries 17(18): 140-147.

 

page 146, of the following summary.

Greb, S.F., W.A. DiMichele, and R.A. Gastaldo, 2006. Evolution and importance of wetlands in earth history, pp. 1–40 in Greb, S.F., and W.A. DiMichele, Wetlands through Time, Geological Society of America Special Paper 399, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo.

 

page 146, moved toward each other.

Kenrich, P., and P. Davis, 2004. Fossil Plants, Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C., in association with the Natural History Museum, London (p. 82), 216 pp.

 

page 147, and subsequent Permian.

Berner, R.A., 1997. The rise of plants and their effect on weathering and atmospheric CO2. Science 276: 544–546. Berner, R.A., 2005. The rise of trees and how they changed Paleozoic atmospheric CO2, climate and geology, pp. 1–7 in Ehleringer, J.R., M.D. Dearing, and T.E. Cerling (eds.), A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants, Animals and Ecosystems, Springer, Berlin, 530 pp.

 

page 147, conditions within a livable range.

For a more scientific approach regarding some of the mechanisms behind planetary regulation by plants, see Beerling, D.J., and R.A. Berner, 2005. Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 102: 1302–1305.

 

page 147, suggested in Wetlands through Time.

Greb, S.F., W.A. DiMichele, and R.A. Gastaldo, 2006. Evolution and importance of wetlands in earth history, pp. 1–40 in Greb, S.F., and W.A. DiMichele. Wetlands through Time, Geological Society of America Special Paper 399, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo.

 

page 148, out of the lengthy ice age.

Retallack, G.J., and E.S. Krull, 2006. Carbon isotopic evidence for terminal-Permian methane outbursts and their role in extinctions of animals, plants, coral reefs, and peat swamps, pp. 249–268 in Greb, S.F., and W.A. DiMichele. Wetlands Through Time, Geological Society of America Special Paper 399, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo.

 

page 148, abrupt turnover of most large plants.

Greb, S.F., W.A. DiMichele, and R.A. Gastaldo, 2006. Evolution and importance of wetlands in earth history, pp. 1–40 in Greb, S.F., and W.A. DiMichele. Wetlands Through Time. Geological Society of America Special Paper 399, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo., citing McElwain, J.C., D.J. Beerling, and F.I. Woodward, 1999. Fossil plants and global warming at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Science 285: 1386–1390.

 

page 148, Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History.

Wing, S.L., L.J. Hickey, and C.C. Swisher, 1993. Implications of an exceptional fossil flora for Late Cretaceous vegetation. Nature 363: 342–344.

 

page 148, amounts of organic matter.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (p. 161), 360 pp.

 

page 148, Cretaceous deposits along the Arctic slope.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (p. 12), 360 pp.

 

page 149, and trees, including Magnolias.

Cross, A.T., and T.L. Phillips, 1990. Coal-forming plants through time in North America. International Journal of Coal Geology 16: 1–46.

 

page 149, when precipitation rates are relatively high.

Parrish, J.T., A.M. Ziegler, and C.R. Scotese, 1982. Rainfall patterns and the distribution of coals and evaporates in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 40: 67–101.

 

page 150, at less than 10,000 years old.

Frolking, S., and N.T. Roulet, 2007. Holocene radiative forcing impact of northern peatland carbon accumulation and methane emissions. Global Change Biology 13(5): 1079–1088.

 

page 152, amount of carbon in the atmosphere.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (p. 188), 360 pp.

 

page 153, University in 2006.

Canfield, D.E., T.W. Lyons, and J.W. Morse, 2006. A special issue honoring Bob Berner. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 5651–5652

 

page 153, The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle.

Berner, R.A., 2004. The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle: CO2 and O2, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 150 pp.

 

page 154, composes music for piano and other instruments.

Bob Berner posts some of his musical compositions at the following Web site: http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~berner/music.html

 

page 154, review by colleague Dana Royer.

Royer, D.L., 2006. CO2–forced climate thresholds during the Phanerozoic. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 5665–5675.

 

page 154, fall squarely within Berner’s estimates.

Royer, D.L., R.A. Berner, and J. Park, 2007. Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past 420 million years. Nature 446: 530-532.

 

page 154, to pull down carbon dioxide.

Berner, R.A., A.C. Lasaga, and R.M. Garrels, 1983. The carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle and its effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years. American Journal of Science 283: 641–683. Also see Walker, J.C.G., P.B. Hays, and J.F. Kasting, 1981. A negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization of Earth’s surface temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research 86: 9776–9782; and Volk, T., 1987. Feedbacks between weathering and atmospheric CO2 over the last 100 million years. American Journal of Science 287: 763–779.

 

page 154, work considered in her analysis.

Dessert, C., B. Dupré, L.M. François, J. Schott, J. Gaillardet, G. Chakrapani, and S. Bajpai, 2001. Erosion of Deccan Traps determined by river geochemistry: impact on the global climate and the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of seawater. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 188: 459–474. Deccan Traps basalt province weathering consumes about 5 percent of the total carbon dioxide consumption flux, the authors estimated.

 

page 155, points out in a 2001 Nature paper.

Retallak, 2001. A 300-million-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil plant cuticles. Nature 411: 287–290.

 

page 155, 1998 with Moulton as lead author.

Berner, R.A., 2001. The effect of the rise of land plants on atmospheric CO2 during the Paleozoic, pp. 173–178 in Gensel, P.G., and D. Edwards (eds.), Plants Invade the Land: Evolutionary and Environmental Perspectives, Columbia University Press, New York, 304 pp. Citing Moulton, K.S., and R.A. Berner, 1998. Quantification of the effect of plants on weathering: studies in Iceland, Geology 26: 895–898.

 

page 155, the intervention of plants.

Schwartzmann, D.W., and T. Volk, 1989. Biotic enhancement of weathering and the habitability of Earth. Nature 340: 457–460.

 

page 156, another analysis concluded.

Algeo, T.J., S.E. Scheckler, and J.B. Maynard, 2001. Effects of the Middle to Late Devonian spread of vascular land plants on weathering regimes, marine biotas, and global climate, pp. 213–236 in Gensel, P.G., and D. Edwards (eds.), Plants Invade the Land: Evolutionary and Environmental Perspectives, Columbia University Press, New York, 304 pp.

 

page 156, levels of greenhouse gases back up.

Volk, T., 1989. Rise of angiosperms as a factor in long-term climatic cooling. Geology 17: 107–110.

 

page 156, 50 million years ago.

Raymo, M.E., W.F. Ruddiman, and P.N. Froelich, 1988. Influence of late Cenozoic mountain building on ocean geochemical cycles. Geology 16: 649–653. Raymo, M.E., 1994. The Himalayas, organic carbon burial, and climate in the Miocene. Paleoceanography 9: 399–404.

 

page 157, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

Kerr, Richard A., 2008. The Andes popped up by losing their deep-seated rocky load. Science (News) 320: 1275.

 

page 157, the ravages of weather.

Heimsath, A.M., W.E. Dietrich, K. Nishiizumi, and R.C. Finkel, 1997. The soil production function and landscape equilibrium. Nature 388: 358–361.

 

page 158, thus affecting its pH.

A pH value of 7.0 indicates neutral conditions. Values that drop lower reflect more acidity, and those that rise higher indicate more alkalinity.

 

page 158, the main component of corals.

Kleypas, J.A., R.W. Buddenmeier, D. Archer, J.-P. Gattuso, C. Langdon, and B.N. Opdyke, 1999. Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science 284: 118–120.

 

page 161, bubbles capturing interglacial air.

Berger, W.H., 1982. Increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during deglaciation: the coral reef hypothesis. Naturwissenschaften 69: 87–88.

 

page 161, the rise in carbon dioxide levels.

Broecker, W.S., and G.M. Henderson, 1998. The sequence of events surrounding Termination II and their implications for the cause of glacial-interglacial CO2 changes. Paleoceanography 13(4): 352–364.

 

page 161, the usual interglacial level.

Skelton, P.W., Spicer, R.A., S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 360 pp. The authors suggest the following sequence (p. 202): high temperatures lead to increased weathering, which deposits more nutrients on coastal shelves, which leads to an expansion in calcium carbonate platforms.

 

page 161, 1996 textbook Sedimentary Geology.

Prothero, D., and F. Schwab, 1996. Sedimentary Geology: An Introduction to Sedimentary Rocks and Stratigraphy, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (p. 233), 575 pp.

 

page 162, past interglacial warm periods.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (p. 197), 360 pp.

 

page 162, slightly deeper waters offshore.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (p. 182), 360 pp.

 

page 162, more diverse symbiotic corals.

Barron, E.J., 1995. Tropical climate stability and implications for the distribution of life, pp. 108–117 in National Research Council Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, Effects Of Past Global Changes On Life, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

 

page 162, to the poles during this hothouse period.

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 360 pp.

 

page 162, Parrish notes in her 1998 book.

Parrish, J.T., 1998. Interpreting Pre-Quaternary Climate from the Geologic Record, Columbia University Press, New York, 338 pp.

 

page 162–163, mid-Cretaceous and other hothouse periods.

Parrish, J.T., 1998. Interpreting Pre-Quaternary Climate from the Geologic Record, Columbia University Press, New York, 338 pp.

 

page 163, describe in The Cretaceous World.

Skelton, P.W., Spicer, R.A., S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (fig. 5.1 on p. 164), 360 pp.

 

page 163, in a year’s burning of fossil fuels.

Ware, J.R., S.V. Smith, and M.L Reaka-Kudla, 1991. Coral reefs: sources or sinks of atmospheric CO2? Coral Reefs 11: 127–130.

 

page 164, in the air over modern reef systems.

Opdyke, B.N., and J.C.G. Walker, 1992. Return of the coral reef hypothesis: basin to shelf portioning of CaCO3 and its effect on atmospheric CO2. Geology 20: 733–736.

 

page 164, over carbonate-building corals.

Gattuso, J.-P., M. Frankignoulle, and S.V. Smith, 1999. Measurement of community metabolism and significance in the coral reef CO2 source-sink debate, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96(23): 13017–13022.

 

page 164, blooms of free-floating algae.

Burnett, J.A., J.R. Young, and P.R. Bown, 2000. Calcareous nannoplankton and global climate change, pp. 36–50 in Culver, S.J., and P.F. Rawson (eds.), Biotic Responses to Global Change: The Last 145 Million Years, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK., citing Robertson, J.E., C. Robinson, D.R. Turner, et al., 1994. The impacts of a coccolithophore bloom on oceanic carbon uptake in the northeast Atlantic during summer 1991. Deep-Sea Research 41: 297–314.

 

page 165, welling of deeper waters into the shelf region.

Chan, F., J.A. Barth, J. Lubchenco, A. Kirincich, H. Weeks, W.T. Peterson, and B.A. Menge, 2008. Emergence of anoxia in the California Current large marine ecosystem. Science 319: 920. The dead zone measures about 3,000 square kilometers (roughly 1,200 square miles), stretching from latitude 44.25° north to about 45° north off the U.S. west Coast.

 

page 165, 8,000 square miles.

Mitsch, W.J., and J.W. Day Jr., 2006. Restoration of wetlands in the Mississippi-Ohio-Missouri (MOM) River Basin: experience and needed research, Ecological Engineering 26: 55–69, citing several other publications, including a 2000 report by the National Research Council. They report that the dead zone extends across 20,000 square kilometers.

 

page 166, carbon, perhaps twice as much.

Richey, J.E., 2004. Pathways of atmospheric CO2 through fluvial systems, pp. 329–340 in Field, C.B., and M.R. Raupach (eds.), The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World, a project of SCOPE (the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) of the International Council for Science, Island Press, Washington, D.C. The study estimates rivers deposit 0.4 to 0.8 billion tons of carbon a year into the sea.

 

page 166, the size record for biggest brown alga.

Raven, P.H., L.R. Berg and D.M. Hassenzahl, 2008. Environment, 6th edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey (p. 137), 599 pp. (The largest kelp can reach 25 meters (about 82 feet).

 

page 166, ends up transforming into oil.

Chilingar, G.V., L.A. Buryakovsky, N.A. Eremenko, and M.V. Gorfunkel, 2005. Geology and Geochemistry of Oil and Gas, Developments in Petroleum Science Series, no. 52, Elsevier, Amsterdam (p. 136), 370 pp.

 

page 167, play a big role in their formation.

Parrish, Judith, personal communication. Prothero, D., and F. Schwab, 1996. Sedimentary Geology: An Introduction to Sedimentary Rocks and Stratigraphy, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (p. 294), 575 pp.

 

page 168, natural gas, or methane.

Shah, S., 2004. Crude: The Story of Oil, Seven Stories Press, New York (p. xvi), 230 pp.

 

page 168, Hollander note.

Sageman, B.B., and D.J. Hollander, 1999. Cross correlation of paleoecological and geochemical proxies: a holistic approach to the study of past global change, pp. 365–384 in Barrera, E., and C.C. Johnson (eds.), Evolution of the Cretaceous Ocean-Climate System, Special Paper 332, U.S. Geological Society, Boulder, Colo.

 

page 169, calcium carbonate deposits.”

Skelton, P.W., R.A. Spicer, S.P. Kelley, and I. Gilmour, 2003. The Cretaceous World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (p. 243), 360 pp. With a diameter of about 10 feet, the circumference would be about 31 feet.

 

page 172, New York Times op-ed piece.

Caldeira, K., 2007. New York Times opinion/editorial piece, January 16, 2007.

 

page 173, carbon-collecting services.

Bala, G., K. Caldeira, M. Wickett, T.J. Phillips, D.B. Lobell, C. Delire, and A. Mirin, 2007. Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(16): 6550-6555.

 

page 173, flaws that marred its conclusions, though.

For one, it presumed that the theoretical grasslands would yield roughly the same amount of evaporative cooling as the virtual forests they replaced. This seems unlikely in reality. Given their many layers of branches, forests tend to have more leaf area per square foot of ground than grasslands. Thus they expose more leaf area to the evaporative processes that produce cooling. That’s partly why forests typically require more moisture than grasslands. The model also ignored the fact that trees transform some energy into matter, in effect, as they build carbohydrates out of water and carbon dioxide. About 1 percent of the sun’s energy can be used in photosynthesis. The effect is relatively small, but then so is the total amount of sunlight typically reflected from the planet’s surface—about 4 percent of the total reaching the atmosphere.

 

page 174, registered below 80 degrees.

Gomez, F., J. Jabaloyes, and E. Vaño, 2004. Green zones in the future of urban planning. Journal of Urban Planning and Development 130: 94–100.

 

page 174, in the International Journal of Biometeorology.

Muelller, E.C., and T.A. Day, 2005. The effect of urban ground cover on microclimate, growth and leaf gas exchange of oleander in Phoenix, Arizona. International Journal of Biometeorology 49: 244–255.

 

page 174, David Breshears and colleagues.

Breshears, D.D., J.W. Nyhan, C.E. Heil, and B.P. Wilcox, 1998. Effects of woody plants on microclimate in a semiarid woodland: soil temperature and evaporation in canopy and intercanopy patches. International Journal of Plant Sciences 159(6): 1010-1017.

 

page 175, lacking protective forest cover.

Breshears, D.D., J.W. Nyhan, C.E. Heil, and B.P. Wilcox, 1998. Effects of woody plants on microclimate in a semiarid woodland: soil temperature and evaporation in canopy and intercanopy patches. International Journal of Plant Sciences 159(6): 1010-1017.

 

page 176, can help fight crime.

Kuo, F.E., and W.C. Sullivan, 2001. Environment and crime in the inner city: Does vegetation reduce crime? Environment and Behavior 33(3): 343–367.

 

page 177, with other researchers.

Harlan, S.L., A.J. Brazel, L. Prashad, W.L. Stefanov, and L. Larsen, 2006. Neighborhood microclimates and vulnerability to heat stress. Social Science and Medicine 63: 2847–2863. Jenerette, G.D., S.L. Harlan, A. Brazel, N. Jones, L. Larsen, and W.L. Stefanov, 2007. Regional relationships between surface temperature, vegetation, and human settlement in a rapidly urbanizing ecosystem. Landscape Ecology 22: 353–364.

 

page 178, a third in the absence of trees.

Noss, R.F., 2000. The Redwood Forest: History, Ecology and Conservation of the Coast Redwoods, Save the Redwoods League and Island Press, Washington, D.C. (p. 103), Citing Dawson, T.E., 1996. The use of fog precipitation by plants in coastal redwood forests, pp. 90-93 in LeBlanc, J. (ed.), Proceedings of a conference on coastal redwood ecology and management, University of California Cooperative Extension Forestry Publication, Arcata, Cal., Humboldt State University, Dawson, T.E., 1998, Fog in the California redwood forest: ecosystem inputs and use by plants. Oecologia 117: 476–485.

 

page 178, on one foggy day in 1997.

Hill, J.B., 2000. Embodying love, pp. 76–77 in The Legacy of Luna: The Story of a Tree, a Woman, and the Struggle to Save the Redwoods, HarperSanFrancisco, a division of HarperCollins Publishers, 262 pp.

 

page 179, that helps them retain moisture.

Makarieva, A.M., V.G. Gorshkov, and B.-L. Li, 2006. Conservation of water cycle on land via restoration of natural closed-canopy forest: implications for regional landscape planning, Ecological Research 21: 897–906.

 

page 181, 88 percent of those outside the forest.

Barry, R.G., and R.J. Chorley, 1998. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate, 7th Edition, Routledge, London and New York (p. 298), 409 pp.

 

page 183, Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands and Beyond.

Lancaster, B., 2006. Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands and Beyond, vol. 1: Guiding Principles to Welcome Rain into Your Life and Landscape, Rainsource Press, distributed by Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, Vermont, 200 pp. Lancaster, B., 2008. Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands and Beyond, vol. 2: Water-Harvesting Earthworks. Rainsource Press, distributed by Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, Vermont, 448 pp.

 

page 186, 40 percent, they calculated.

Mitsch, W.J., and J.W. Day Jr., 2006. Restoration of wetlands in the Mississippi-Ohio-Missouri (MOM) River Basin: experience and needed research. Ecological Engineering 26: 55–69.

 

page 187, listed as threatened and endangered.

Raven, P.H., L.R. Berg, and D.M. Hassenzahl, 2008. Environment, 6th edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 599 pp.

 

page 196, emissions in some big-fire years.

Wiedinmyer, C., and J.C. Neff, 2007. Estimates of CO2 from fires in the United States: implications for carbon management. Carbon Balance and Management, published online on November 1, 2007.

 

page 196, global emissions they cite.

Giglio, L., G.R. van der Werf, J.T. Randerson, G.J. Collatz, and P. Kasibhatla, 2006. Global estimation of burned area using MODIS active fire observations, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6: 957–974. van der Werf, G.R., J.T. Randerson, L. Giglio, G.J. Collatz, P.S. Kasibhatla and A.F. Arellano, 2006. Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6: 3423–3441.

 

page 196, Global Fire Emissions Database.

They cite van der Werf, G.R., J.T. Randerson, L. Giglio, G.J. Collatz, P.S. Kasibhatla, and A.F. Arellano, 2006. Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6: 3423–3441.

 

page 196, B.E. Law and colleagues using a different approach.

Law, B.E., D. Turner, J. Campbell, O.J. Sun, S. Van Tuyl, W.D. Ritts, and W.B. Cohen, 2004. Disturbance and climate effects on carbon stocks and fluxes across western Oregon, USA, Global Change Biology 10: 1429–1444.

 

page 197, more fire-resistant conditions.

Hurteau, M.D., G.W. Koch, and B.A. Hungate, 2008. Carbon protection and fire risk reduction: toward a full accounting of forest carbon offsets. Frontiers in Ecology 6(9): 493–498.

 

page 198, Northern Arizona University documented in 2007.

Strom, B.A., 2005. Pre-fire treatment effects and post-fire forest dynamics on the Rodeo-Chediski burn area, Arizona, thesis for a master’s of science degree in forestry, Northern Arizona University. Strom, B.A., and P.Z. Fule, 2007. Pre-wildfire fuel treatments affect long-term Ponderosa pine forest dynamics. International Journal of Wildland Fire 16: 128–138.

 

page 198, thinning projects in local forests.

Lenart, M., 2006. Collaborative stewardship to prevent wildfires. Environment 48(7): 8–21.

 

page 199, even before the national recession hit.

Arizona Department of Commerce community profile for Fort Apache Indian Reservation, citing figures provided by the Arizona Department of Economic Security. Accessed from the web on March 10, 2009 at http://www.azcommerce.com. FULL URL: http://www.azcommerce.com/doclib/COMMUNE/ft apache.pdf