picture of cover

The Marana Community in the Hohokam World

by Suzanne K. Fish, Paul R. Fish, and John H. Madsen, Editors

The University of Arizona Press, Tucson

(A Complete Online Version of the Original Printed Book)


ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
NUMBER 56

Copyright ©1992
The Arizona Board of Regents
All rights reserved. No part of this on-line book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without the written permission of the University of Arizona Press.


Contents

Preface and Acknowledgements

Chapter 1
An Introduction to Time, Place and Research
Cultural Diagnostics; Environmental Setting; Core and Peripheral Regions; Regional Character of the Tucson Basin; The Marana Study Area and the Classic Period Community
Chapter 2 Early Sedentism and Agriculture in the Northern Tucson Basin
A Framework for Transition in the Tucson Basin; Agricultural Transition and the Tucson Environment; Late Archaic and Early Ceramic Settlement Patterns; Basic Patterns of Settlement and Production
Chapter 3 Evolution and Structure of the Classic Period Marana Community
Developmental Aspects of the Community Organization; Description of the Marana Community; Economic Differentiation; Evidence for Vertical Organization; Institutions and Social Personae; Abandonment of the Marana Community; The Marana Community in Regional Perspective
Chapter 4 Parameters of Agricultural Production in the Northern Tucson Basin
Consultation with Traditional Farmers; Precipitation and Regional Potential; Agricultural Attributes of Basin Settings; Agricultural Parameters and Regional Land Use
Chapter 5 An Evaluation of Alluvial Fan Agriculture
Geomorphology of Late Holocene Alluvial Fans; AGricultural Potential of Alluvial Fans; Flow Observation on Cottonwood Wash and Derrio Wash; Applications to Prehistoric Agriculture
Chapter 6 The Dairy Site: Occupational Continuity on an Alluvial Fan
The Occupational Sample; Farming and Residence on the Dairy Fan; Subsistence Studies; Continuity in Farming and Settlement
Chapter 7 Evidence for Large-Scale Agave Cultivation in the Marana Community
The Issue of Cultivation; Archaeological Indicators of Cultivation; Estimates from Archaeological Distributions; Implications of Productive Patters in the Classic Period
Chapter 8 The Archaeology of an Agave Roasting Location
Site Description; Field Investigations; Lithic Technology and Agave Processing; Ceramics and Agave Processing; Activities and Artifacts at Site 205
Chapter 9 The Marana Community in Comparative Context
Hohokam Communities in the Phoenix Basin; Hohokam Communities in the Tucson Basin and Other Noncore Areas
References
Index    (PDF format)
Abstract


Figures

1.1 The Hohokam tradition of southern Arizona
1.2 Correlation of Phoenix Basin and Tucson Basin Hohokam phase sequences
1.3 Typical vegetation community near the basin floor dominated by shrubs
1.4 Typical vegetation community on basin slopes dominated by leguminous trees and cacti
1.5 Major topographic features of the Tucson Basin
1.6 Aerial view of the portion of the northern Tucson Basin between the Tucson and Tortolita mountains
1.7 View across the northern Tucson Basin from the Tucson Mountains on the west toward the Tortolita Mountains on the east
1.8 Survey coverage north of Tucson
2.1 Late Archaic through Pioneer period settlement in the Marana survey area
2.2 Cumulative frequency comparison of Late Archaic tool assemblages from a site on an alluvial fan near the Santa Cruz River and a site on the upper bajada
2.3 Locations of Late Archaic sites in Table 2.1
3.1 Preclassic settlement in the Marana survey area
3.2 Early Classic period settlement in the Marana survey area
3.3 Tanque Verde Red-on-brown ceramics of the early Classic period
3.4 Late Classic period settlement in the Marana survey area
3.5 The Marana platform mound and surrounding compound
3.6 Distribution of adobe architectural remains and trash mounds associated with residential compounds at the Marana Mound Site
3.7 Outlines of compound wall and rooms identified by partial excavation of a large residential compound at the Marana Mound Site
3.8 Idealized basin cross section, showing zonal divisions of the Marana Community
3.9 Zonal divisions of the Marana Community
3.10 Terraces and other masonry features at the largest Tucson Mountain trincheras site in the Marana Community
3.11 Plan and cross section of an excavated pit house on a trincheras site terrace in the Marana Community
3.12 Histogram of habitation site sizes in the Marana Community
4.1 Locations of weather stations in Tables 4.1 and 4.2
4.2 Braided channel of a drainage on the upper bajada downslope from the Tortolita Mountain pediment in the Marana survey area
4.3 Segment of Derrio Wash with arable bottomland on the upper bajada in the Marana survey area
4.4 Water diversion structure on a tributary of the Rio Sonora near Baviacora, Sonora
4.5 Earthen embankment for intrafield distribution of water along a tributary of the Rio Sonora near Baviacora, Sonora
4.6 Canal carrying diverted floodwaters to multiple fields along a tributary of the Rio Sonora near Baviacora, Sonora
5.1 Geomorphic map of the surveyed area north of Tucson
5.2 Typical exposure of well-stratified channel gravelly sand facies
5.3 Typical exposure of sheetwash silty sand facies
5.4 Aerial photograph of Cottonwood Fan in the Marana survey area
5.5 Longitudinal profile of Derrio Fan in the Marana survey area
5.6 Longitudinal profile of a small fan in the Marana survey area
5.7 Locations of fan channel calculations in Table 5.3
6.1 View downslope along a section of the Dairy Site profile
6.2 Dairy Site profile, showing locations of features
6.3 Central portion of the Dairy Site profile, showing stratigraphic relationships of chronologically significant features
7.1 Agave Murpheyi with flowering stalk
7.2 Roasted hearts or heads of agave prepared by removal of leaves and extended baking in a pit
7.3 A comparison of the modern range of agave species with evidence for prehistoric production and use in southern Arizona
7.4 Typical rockpile feature in the Marana survey area
7.5 Cross section of an excavated rockpile
7.6 Typical contour terrace in the Marana survey area
7.7 Distribution of features in a portion of site AZ AA:12:108, a large rockpile field in Zone 2 of the Marana Community
7.8 Distribution of features in a portion of site AZ AA:12:470, a large rockpile field in Zone 2 of the Marana Community
7.9 Distribution of features at site AZ AA:12:469, one of the many small groups of rockpiles in Zone 2 of the Marana Community
7.10 Three basin cross sections from north to south in the Marana Community, showing elevational limits of rockpile fields in Zone 2
7.11 Typical large roasting pit located in a large rockpile field in Zone 2 of the Marana Community
7.12 Agave knife from the Marana Community
7.13 Pulping planes from the Marana Community
7.14 Ground stone object of uncertain function from a rockpile field in Zone 2 of the Marana Community
8.1 Location of site AZ AA:12:205 in the Marana survey area
8.2 Map of site AZ AA:12:205
8.3 Cross section of a bisected rockpile, showing the stratigraphy and the relationship to the underlying caliche layer at size AZ AA:12:205
8.4 Excavated roasting pit at site AZ AA:12:205, showing size and depth, fire-cracked rock, and ashy fill containing charred vegetal material
8.5 Scattergram of the weight and number of sherds of the 82 refitted vessel fragments from site AZ AA:12:205
8.6 Sherd tools from roasting pits
9.1 Distribution of Classic period mound sites in southern Arizona


Tables

2.1 Late Archaic sites in the Tucson area with evidence of corn
3.1 Comparison of site categories for the Preclassic and Classic periods
4.1 Annual precipitation measures for stations in the Tucson Basin and other Hohokam subareas
4.2 July, August and September precipitation for stations in the Tucson Basin and other Hohokam subareas
4.3 Mountain watershed sizes for trans-bajada drainages in the Marana survey area
5.1 Drainage characteristics of selected washes in the surveyed area north of Tucson
5.2 Amount of active fan area on selected fans in the surveyed area north of Tucson
5.3 Minimum bankful discharge calculations for channels on three fans in the Marana survey area
6.1 Feature and chronology information for the Dairy Site (AZ AA:12:285)
6.2 Percentages of pollen types in samples from the Dairy Site
6.3 Numbers of flotation samples containing carbonized plant remains at the Dairy Site
6.4 Faunal remains from the Dairy Site
8.1 Wood charcoal recovered by flotation from the roasting pit at site AZ AA:12:205
8.2 Weights and numbers of sherds for 82 vessel fragments isolated from the ceramic assemblage of site AZ AA:12:205
8.3 Weights of 20 whole vessels from southern Arizona
9.1 Estimated statistics for some key Hohokam communities


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